2. endstream endobj startxref NaOH= 0.01% Pure potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHT) is not dangerous; in fact, it is one of the ingredients in baking powder. PRINCIPLES: The salt was in the form of a powder. The aim of this experiment is to determine the relationship between the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHC4H4O6) and temperature. First Titration The solution of Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate (KHTar) dissolved in Deionized Water will be titrated with a standardized solution of NaOH, approximately 0.10 M. 1. KHP has one acidic hydrogen atom, and reacts with NaOH on a 1:1 stoichiometric basis. Titration is used to determine the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate. NSC-155080. Since NaOH is not a primary standard, its solution must be titrated (standardized) against potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). Using the data from your lab section, complete the following calculations using a b. The USP has embarked on a global initiative to modernize many of the existing monographs across all compendia.1 The current USP monograph for potassium bitartrate uses titration to determine the tartrate content.2 In You will determine the concentration (standardize) of an unknown solution of NaOH using the primary standard, potassium hydrogen phthalate. % unc. Carston C . endobj 559 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0F0349FBC48377449AA2EDFDB80550AB>]/Index[543 39]/Info 542 0 R/Length 87/Prev 264634/Root 544 0 R/Size 582/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Titration Curves . Gather: a. To standardize a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution against a primary standard acid [Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP)] using phenolphthalein as indicator. !���7�H�$�1��SW�tF'�q�d{��S2��Sݪ���i�h���'�A�$ل��l��j�6 [�,���p"�����tqvq�@���U��C`�������s��=t��U�W���N�3lq�_���12���`p��pK��[ ,�c;�xGLx ��?�y���G"yYb�T�$�o��cvFD�p46~@_$p��`� �Dh�|��I^�h�D��|��#/u��Ĝ����W�?�rH��>����;̄���L3��v`f2��1‡�L�OO�w��� ��9 Its aqueous solutions were strongly dextrorotatory. 500 L) 9. RE: I have to write a balanced equation for the following; NaOH + KH(C8H4O4)? With this information we will then calculate Ksp for each. 2. The cell potential and pH are monitored as standard 0.1 M NaOH is titrated into the cathode compartment, precipitating Ag2O. For Solution B Calculate the number of moles of NaOH used in each titration Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 A mol of NaOH Answer Submitted: Your final submission will be graded after the due date. Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate ( referred in the experiment as KHP) was a brittle, white, crystalline substance. Answer. To determine the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHT) at various temperatures from 10°C to 50 °C, and determine the corresponding Ksp at these temperatures. Lastly the final volume of the titrant must be recorded. Potassium hydrogen tartrate is an acid salt of tartaric acid.It is denoted by the chemical formula KC 4 H 5 O 6 and has a molecular weight of 188.18. Sodium hydroxide is hygroscopic and absorbs water from the air when you place it on the balance for massing. This is a neutralization reaction given by the following equation: NaOH(aq) + KHC8H4O4(aq) --> KNaC8H4O4(aq) + H2O(l) Rinse and fill your buret with the standardized NaOH solution. The hydrogen phthalate salt can donate another proton to the base (NaOH), so an acid-base neutralisation reaction occurs KOOCC6H4COOH + NaOH → KOOCC6H4COONa + H2O You get the … <>>> Titrate the solution with the standardized NaOH solution until the light pink end point persists for at least 30 s. 21. So what the ionic equation shows is that the hydrogen tartrate ion + the hydroxide ion from the base neutralize each other (H from the hydrogen tartrate ion going with OH from NaOH to form water. The acid used is the weak monoprotic acid, potassium hydrogen. Study of Solubility Equilibrium of Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate Wang Haina 1. The active ingredient is bitartrate (hydrogen tartrate). A 10.0 mf sample of an acid is titrated with 45.5 ml of 0.200 M Nao What is the concentration of the acid? This Site Might Help You. Remember, KHP is NOT potassium + hydrogen + phosphorous, it's actually potassium hydrogen pthalate, an acidic salt. 'I'll(' assay was found to be 99.95 percent by titration with a carbonate-free The cathode pOH, pAg, and pKsp are computed at each point of the titration. %%EOF 0 While the concentration of NaOH used in this experiment is not high, sodium hydroxide is extremely corrosive. <> to produce carbon dioxide. The HT concentration can then be determined stoichiometrically by titrating it against the hydroxide ion, OH-. 0.10 M Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 260 mL Phenolphthalein indicator solution, 2 drops 0.10 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl), 20 mL Model 2 0.10 M Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 260 mL 0.10 M Acetic acid (CH 3 COOH), 20 mL 0.10 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl), 20 mL 0.10 M Potassium hydrogen tartrate … Wiki User Answered . It also absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, forming sodium carbonate and thereby reducing the amount of sodium hydroxide present. Between 2 trials, I calculated the average Molarity of the HT- to be 0.213M. T / K [KNO3] / M Average volume of NaOH used / cm3 Amount of NaOH / mol Amount of HC4H4O6- reacted / mol Total amount of K+ / mol [K+]total / mol dm-3 Solubility of HC4H4O6- / mol dm-3 Ksp 301 0.01 11.45 0.0008509 0.0008509 0.001551 The reaction between the two solutions is typically done using a process called titration, so that the concentration and volume of each solution is known … View information & documentation regarding Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, including CAS, MSDS & more. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. Chemistry Q&A Library A solution of sodium hydroxide is standardized against potassium hydrogen phthalate (molecular mass = 204.224 g mol-1). Between 2 trials, I calculated the average Molarity of the HT- to be 0.213M. To determine experimental ly the molar solubility of potassium acid tartrate in water and in a solution of potassium nitrate. heat must be added to dissolve the salt in water. To obtain the changes in enthalpy and entropy of the dissolution of KHT from the dependence of Ksp on temperature. Taking the first row in Table 1 as example, the number of moles of NaOH used for titration is nNaOH=VNaOH×cNaOH=8.82×10-3L×0.07274 M=6.416×10-4mol. This is further supported by the negatively sloped graph above. Finding molarity of NaOH from a titration with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) abrar Wed, 02/18/2009 - 17:57 Suppose .6319g of KHP is titrated to the endpoint with 28.80ml NaOH … Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate in the following three solvent systems: pure water, 0.10 M KNO3, and 0.10 M NaNO3. Standardization of a NaOH Solution with Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) and Titration of Vinegar with Standardized NaOH Objective You will determine the concentration (standardize) of an unknown solution of NaOH using the primary standard, potassium hydrogen phthalate.Determine the concentration of acetic acid of vinegar, in terms of % (m/m). of potassium hydrogen tartrate. April 20th, 2019 - hydrogen tartrate ion Since the hydrogen tartrate ion HT– behaves as a weak acid its concentration can be determined by acid base titration using NaOH as the titrant Thus the molar solubility of KHT and the value of K sp can be determined In the second part of this experiment we will dissolve enough potassium hydrogen tartrate in a 2. 2.1 Collection of data. Standardization of a NaOH Solution with Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) Objective You will determine the concentration (standardize) of an unknown solution of NaOH using the primary standard, potassium hydrogen phthalate. The x–y plot that we know of as a graph was the brainchild of the French mathematician-philosopher Rene Descartes (1596–1650). In this experiment you will determine the amount of acid present by titration with the strong base NaOH. Based on the results, the dissolution of potassium hydrogen tartrate has a ΔH° value of 3.89 *104. With this data, the volume of NaOH used can be calculated. %���� h��Wmk�8�+�~i�A� %�I��Bۃ$w)}p���a�^l����7#َ��f�6��f=��h�y4�6�0� '�[�� Its solubility equilibrium in water is: KHC4H4O6 (s) K+ (aq) + HC4H4O6- (aq) The HC4H4O6- (aq) ion contains one acidic hydrogen, so that the quantity of potassium hydrogen tartrate in solution can be determined by titration with a base. It is made up of 25.53% carbon, 51.01% oxygen, 20.78% potassium, and 2.68% hydrogen, and has a density of 1.95 g/cc. 3 0 obj HT-(aq) + NaOH H 2 O (l) + NaT-(aq) 7 8 9. A 25mL sample of pure KHT was titrated with 19.8mL of NaOH (0.027M). 2. >{��)H�ɽ��m2��~ze�]9)�v����װ����W��o�_M[߾�-�o� 8�n�~��e������b�. Potassium hydrogen tartrate (cream of tartar), KHC4H4O6, is a weak acid, that is not very soluble in water. Potassium acid tartrate= 0.0001 g/ 2.06 g x 100%= 0.005 % (same for each solvent) (6.19 g used of potassium acid tartrate divided in 3) Used average V1 mL for each solvent % unc.mL (H20)= ± 0.10 mL/ 16.64 mL x 100%= 0.6 % % unc.mL (NaNO3)= ± 0.10 mL/19.67 mL x 100%= 0.51 % % unc.mL (KNO3)= ± 0.10 mL/6.56 mL x 100%= 1.5 % %unc. ZJ-�Z���C����� �h#��mZ�U�e��X�2�V9ehZ�V���Zh�Z������6@Vv��i �� �H2��� i��H:$�I�Q�:j�,�-�. Look up the molar mass of KHP … stream 2 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks (washed and rinsed with and distilled water) b. 2. From the following data, calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution. SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OF POTASSIUM ACID TARTRATE 6/6/2004 1 PURPOSE: 1. To obtain the changes in enthalpy and entropy of the dissolution of KHT from the dependence of Ksp on temperature. The volume of H 2 SO 4 required is smaller than the volume of NaOH because of the two hydrogen ions contributed by each molecule. Since it is hard to prepare a NaOH solution of accurately known concentration directly from the solid, you will need to standardize your NaOH solution against a precisely weighed amount of standard acid. %PDF-1.5 <> PRINCIPLES: Top Answer. This is an interactive simulation of a near 0.1 M NaOH solution. However, in the lab it may be contaminated with other substances, so treat it as if it were dangerous. Theory/Principles: Goldwhite, H.; Tikkanen, W. Experiment 18. H�|�]K�0��@�ùL��9I�DP���Z����EW�΂�;[���eE,�e }���=��'�iw;\OttԞL�p}?�ж������ilw��0�����i��}n���1�~>�ӾR�W&6��V���S�ƈ����2t7/�*��gu��c�a�j�z7/뤧z#�y��k팦z�4����Q�/��\�[n�{�m����O�Η�,٘F�1�:��#����J]~���M�����z{k���4n�R!�4B�M�&h���q9 (ehye�!>�"K3 Sodium hydroxide is hygroscopic and absorbs water from the air when you place it on the balance for massing. Potassium hydrogen tartrate (cream of tartar), KHC4H4O6, is a weak acid, that is not very soluble in water. Introduction. 7 years ago. CAS 868-14-4 Potassium hydrogen tartrate certified secondary standard reference material for pH measurement; directly traceable to primary SRM from NIST/PTB pH(S) = 3.63₉ / pH(S) = 3.55₇ (25°C) Certipur®. (0 L) .00 q I 8. The temperatures of the KHT solutions and the corresponding volumes of NaOH solution used for titration are shown in Table 1. Must use the following format: Abstract, Introduction, Experiment, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, References, Appendix. 22. Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, is a laxative for medical use and is commonly used together with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide. Data and Results Data Sheet 1 -- Titration Trial 1 Saturated potassium hydrogen tartrate solution volume 25.00 mL NaOH Solution Concentration 0.0167 mol L Initial Volume NaOH 0.10 mL Final Volume NaOH 29.69 mL Volume of NaOH added mL Volume of NaOH added L Moles of NaOH added mol Moles of HC,,06 mol Moles of K+ mol Saturated potassium hydrogen tartrate solution volume L mol … Potassium bitartate, also referred to as potassium acid tartrate or cream of tartar, is the potassium acid salt of l-( + )-tartaric acid. Source(s): naoh khp titration molarity problem: https://tr.im/EzZYD. The end point was when the full solution appeared a light pink. NSC155080. There are a number good reasons to test your solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH… To determine experimental ly the molar solubility of potassium acid tartrate in water and in a solution of potassium nitrate. 5. M NaOH is needed to titrate it? endstream endobj 544 0 obj <>/Metadata 28 0 R/Pages 541 0 R/StructTreeRoot 37 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 545 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 541 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 546 0 obj <>stream It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture during the fermentation process. endobj Synonym: L-(+)-Tartaric acid monopotassium salt, Potassium L-tartrate monobasic, Potassium hydrogen L-tartrate Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 4 H 5 KO 6 Molecular Weight: 188.18 What is the reaction equation between NaOH and Potassium Hydrogentartrate or KHT? Study of Solubility Equilibrium of Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate Wang Haina 1. To examine the effect of a common ion on the solubility of a slightly soluble salt. ��Ĥ)̊��ì 2��ZX� � $(�*%�jPYFx����L�[+���A�XY��5��5DX�*KDjPH��פD*A'0}��Κk_�$I9����*�� Q���|���� 陏ˎ7t��W ��Ϋ�=9�~dG=� N8X����o�/�UtY��6_׳r����O>_�(A?�?bHv������v���.�mUӯ]�B��������2��z����i�ń�kqD/ѳ��#� s(�6�&�ٿO�4�8��B ��&Uj�Y硋�� • Titration #5: Acetic acid, HC 2H 3O 2, with ammonium hydroxide, NH 4OH. Introduction. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture during the fermentation process. Record the final buret reading on your data sheet to the nearest 0.01 ml. - L) L 7. The solubility of the KHT in these various solutions is determined by titration with standardized NaOH solution. Titrating 25.0cm3 of KHC4H4O6 solution with 0.07415M NaOH solution with phenolphthalein indicator gave the following results – To determine Ksp at 302.15K: Amount of NaOH used = Average volume of NaOH used – 0.07415M = 13.35 – 10-3 – 0.07415 = 9.899 – 10-4 mol = Amount of HC4H4O6- reacted Titration of a Saturated Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate (KHT) Solution Against Standardized NaOH Preparation of the Saturated KHT Solution for Titration 1. The phenolphthalein is an indicator that reacts to the addition of hydrogen or hydroxide ions, turning colorless with an addition of hydrogen ions and turning pink when hydroxide ions are added. Titration: Standardizing NaOH using PHI. • Titration #4: Hydrochloric acid, HCl, with ammonium hydroxide, NH 4OH. Therefore as 3.89 *104 > 0, the dissolution of potassium hydrogen tartrate is endothermic, i.e. A 25mL sample of pure KHT was titrated with 19.8mL of NaOH (0.027M). The primary standard mass has to be known for the exact moles that are needed for reaction with the base. Determine the molar solubility of the salt in each titration. 2. Butanedioic acid,3-dihydroxy- [R-(R*,R*)]-, monopotassium salt KHT (s) dissociates into potassium ion, K+(aq), and hydrogen tartrate ion, HT--(aq) in solution. Aqueous solutions of KCl, NaCl, MgSO4 and glucose with concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 M are saturated with KHT. Tries 1/3 Previous Tries Submit Answer Calculate the number of moles of Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate (KHT) salt used in each titration. It is the most common titrimetric procedure used in pharmacopoeias assays and serves a double purpose: it is suitable for the titration of very weak acids and very weak bases, and it provides a solvent in which organic compounds are soluble. The NaOH Standardization Calculator determines the normality of your sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution from the titration of a potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) solution of known normality. Mass of Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate salt: 1.049 g Trial #1: 1.48×10-4 mol of KHT Trial #2: 1.47×10-4 … CAS 868-14-4 Potassium hydrogen tartrate certified secondary standard reference material for pH measurement; directly traceable to primary SRM from NIST/PTB pH(S) = 3.63₉ / pH(S) = 3.55₇ (25°C) Certipur®. Ask Question Asked 6 years ago. Use a small amount (~ 5 mL) of the NaOH solution to rinse your buret, coating all surfaces and discarding the rinse. SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OF POTASSIUM ACID TARTRATE 6/6/2004 1 PURPOSE: 1. 581 0 obj <>stream 2009-10-05 01:24:44 2009-10-05 01:24:44. 1 0 obj ���_��^OsR�� ��"&��8��iz�>,np�9.3��+�YI��9���T"��ΊH��kdt�. %PDF-1.5 %���� - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. h�bbd```b``z "k�d6�d� �s�Hf0{2�mf�����9�t�����d/ ���*10120��� �?���o C� : Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate, KHP, with sodium hydroxide, NaOH. i need the balanced equation of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydrogen phthalate. is the sample of saturated potassium hydrogen tartrate you will analyze. The potassium hydrogen d-tartrate was a com­ posite sample of a lot of 250 lb obtained for issuance , as NBS Standard Sample 188. �(�gԏ����#�ـX�g1u2xt������G������P��(geS��Eݴ�7y݃�L�64�d����o-�����C��B� �&0̏��AW�1t�=]}��> ݷ'�z9Ư��_=�W��ޜ� ��!.�����Z�0���ƒ 5$�7�} ��G�)���( ���j�!7�6���� �!09�=���? endstream endobj 547 0 obj <>stream ^��bx�.xS�G�U�{׊d^�x �樋��xgu���ݴR�� Fill up the buret with the remaining NaOH solution and place it on a ring stand, using a buret clamp. For a lab experiment, I was asked to calculate the Experiment Molar Solubility of KHT (potassium hydrogen tartrate (aka potassium bitartate)). Rinse your clean 100 mL or 50 … Its solubility equilibrium in water is: KHC4H4O6 (s) K+ (aq) + HC4H4O6- (aq) The HC4H4O6- (aq) ion contains one acidic hydrogen, so that the quantity of potassium hydrogen tartrate in solution can be determined by titration with a base. Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHC8H4O4) is the acid used for this trial to react to the standardized base NaOH. 0 2. Paper details: Firstly, the title will be “Determining the Identity of an Unknown Acid through Acid-Base Titration”. Data and Results Data Sheet 1 -- Titration Trial 1 Saturated potassium hydrogen tartrate solution volume 25.00 mL NaOH Solution Concentration 0.0167 mol L Initial Volume NaOH 0.10 mL Final Volume NaOH 29.69 mL Volume of NaOH added mL Volume of NaOH added L Moles of NaOH added mol Moles of HC,,06 mol Moles of K+ mol Saturated potassium hydrogen tartrate solution volume L mol … You will determine the concentration (standardize) of an unknown solution of NaOH using the primary standard, potassium hydrogen phthalate. Aim 1. For people who are looking at this in the future: the reason the above answers differ is due to a minor miscalculation of the molar mass of KHP. The resultant Acidic solution was transparent, with a small amount of undissolved granules of KHP. Acid-Base Titration of NaOH using Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate. KSP OF POTASSIUM HYDROGEN TARTRATE (KHT) Name: Partner: Date: Section/Instructor: Purpose (in 50 words or less): Spreadsheets, Graphs, and Calculations: 1. Where did graphs come from? Potassium bitartate, also referred to as potassium acid tartrate or cream of tartar, is the potassium acid salt of l-( + )-tartaric acid. endobj A pH electrode will be placed in one of the acid solutions and a solution of one of the bases will slowly drip from a buret into the acid solution at a constant rate. non-aqueous-titration. When KHP and NaOH combine, a positive hydrogen ion leaves the KHC8H4O4 and a negative hydrogen atom leaves the NaOH. One source will be this website: . The crystals required intense stirring before it could dissolved in water. h�b```�Tv!b`��0p r�m�}`����q����L+|� ŷ��000���{��0�,��d�h�``�`�`� 8��(�= ��� F^A}�K�(`1���ä�(��{��Aq�j�7 P�10���l���Ζc`a_2�8 cB/ 543 0 obj <> endobj Results and discussion . If it is assumed that the value for c (NaOH) is exact, then the uncertainty of n (NaOH), ∆n (NaOH), equals to the uncertainty of V (NaOH) times the value of c (NaOH). The active ingredient is bitartrate (hydrogen tartrate). Using a plastic dropper, cover the pH sensor of the pH meter with a drop of your final solution. When purified, it is an odorless, white, crystalline powder that has a pleasant acidulous taste. Aim 1. Non aqueous titration is the titration of substances dissolved in solvents other than water. These two atoms combine with the oxygen from the NaOH to form H2O, which is the chemical formula for water. Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate products. To determine the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHT) at. The solubilities of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHT) in water, water + ethanol, and water + ethanol + KCl, as well as of potassium chloride in water + ethanol mixtures, were determined, using the polythermal method, at different temperatures. Reaction: KHC 8 H 4 O 4 + NaOH -----> NaKC 8 H 4 O 4 + H 2 O This application is used to standardize NaOH titrant with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). 4 0 obj Table 2: Solubility product constant of potassium hydrogen tartrate at various potassium nitrate concentrations. Viewed 312 times 3 $\begingroup$ Q: A student standardizes sodium hydroxide by weighing out 1.207 grams of potassium hydrogen iodate, dissolving the compound in water and titrating to a suitable endpoint: If the volume to reach the endpoint is 32.80 mL, what is the concentration of sodium hydroxide? Standardization of a NaOH Solution with Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) Objective. The experiment begins with the primary standard weighing. A 5.00 mt sample of vinegar has a concentration of 0.800 M. What volume of 0.150 M NaOH is required to complete the titration? Titrate a known concentration of NaOH against a saturated solution of KHC4H4O6 at different temperatures to obtain the concentrations of KHC4H4O6, and hence the solubility product constant of KHC4H4O6 at various temperatures. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 868-14-4. The mass of the KHP is 1.146 g. Before the titration the buret reading was 0.1100 mL and afterwards it was 48.62 mL. To examine the effect of a common ion on the solubility of a slightly soluble salt. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is stopped. Active 6 years ago. 2 0 obj To determine the solubility of potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHT) at various temperatures from 10°C to 50 °C, and determine the corresponding Ksp at these temperatures. For a lab experiment, I was asked to calculate the Experiment Molar Solubility of KHT (potassium hydrogen tartrate (aka potassium bitartate)). Potentiometric Standardization of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titrant with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) Solid NaOH cannot be accurately weighed as it is highly hygroscopic (it absorbs water from the air). Standardization of a NaOH Solution with Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) Objective. Potassium bitartrate. Asked by Wiki User. It is important to note that the chemical equation (shown below) shows a stoichiometry of one moles of oxalic acid to every two mole of NaOH in this reaction. x��=ks7��U�����4�����V�({�u���ԕ��HI�I�̇������ 3�!$ǩ�-���h�h ������f�^��x���n�s���u��W�?.����mv�����js���y�����b��%{��%{}}zr�3.���� g)�Ǚ҉̘,��`�k ��C��v�')�����|�������'o ��ӓ�O�EȤơ�2)�vqz�������Y�!�q��OGWtѱ:��޼�d��7�ڻ�_fiW:)�i�:M�E��TM�/lz^L^�,�%�)��$W�P��ρjI�(��`�����-�D�,� �˴샇`������D�E�*K����߸HU^I��k�v�w̨c8h�*��"I-���l6�&��4���d渹��a;=�&34��)O�9�W�fz���i��a����t�)� ����|�`�S=�BN���i:�[ ~$�6 �nvl�c7�z��O1`����̋D���,�h^,MR����ɦ�Nl\Y�rW.�1j7z����|��|�{���@R���m�Q�Ph�;����w��~�]�\/6��������Ȏ��@Z$B�8> 7�.EhΙN�L�UR���p�E�i�0�ut�2Ʉ�u�OЅ:f�z��&A�"х� # 4: Hydrochloric acid, HC 2H 3O 2, with ammonium,. Be contaminated with other substances, so treat it as if it dangerous... Needed for reaction with the base, H. ; Tikkanen, W. 18. 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