!0^_]7^#%2:$ @!W'NEX/7*$fNoOi(OX>2#b=Y(*SVUJMpY>;A;D@&)h1SocB"Q26H @#d&eB&/$I4X&H"JYF](P2,E'$/ni! )$p`I`nG&:qJWaPbJX_=1P5!A/[%J9;L@i'[blS0%jB`X0JO6Nj&i $A",r#=)r4"CSbh! ;jq%g/b4+2a1[N`!GDL*5[l @k^3*@D-l?!%8?8lp$PMg6B. *K5`t1bKC891G`h&4B;5#qb-iYV `3[k63@&nT!+&MqGQm'S)^2:$Ts$fT16k/@)o8f6=T]?R?oF2qu%Ue^Oi5>u-_(lU1S.m*o %utB.i,AuS9#dYB]MUZOG]JMsn6k*X!6bJHlSgFQf59n#r6rZTa=uqQ]O)^bt6]fUu2e%a0@7/mg +BE<5Ps\NtQ6EINZp*9=YT(Ei*! @7QD5?Jt]t,"pfm4a@hf[nZ[!O#4[L_']Lg$ 8sL]"'I+`q!=i"l,I'!c)9'\j8PU_SW5o7)Yd+B9>9PQm+VD^p5f,*IL D2r&329*/U)Il$GN=hU8L60_!d)9Om@?_LYk[Y2)r%a!,TU19BB+4mK2ML)E)hU\& %&&>4LChZOKF!5B@F.1A+NPM?\8hr[a?56^nhPp_'EZ+(8d,g>-pf=B#=+M,$*crU du[rG%RJ-j&E"PG0O5(F9I#rZ_M^c8D[q>K3/N1T*WmOM('+[SK]&RBK5tW14:4YV$C$\1tt';6s=LLBlt6\&bVJRCKo0a^H"0br<6)ZjW_k^js TUf^_(i'RHUbns1c5D7:Ck5fae[+D22$ k[]W,E%V=X_&$PD6AOL0)FJJ7$_e2-$ZT&]6r90_!_cFJFabutaLW"XoOs0aX>&mP _\_8_3/umU/VH*1?NIN5$B_JH7$*oL+k/c3N)0l_J8G]\BJG9=h@tSBT+p;/*XE@8 -:EAV&>DiT"^mu:!jGu? ?`/'JLU-)/,@2^GF(j-;H r&Y0lC^e,7Wrku008(J=,_MbP*2@U\%3^Z]8!$F\"#*pf!E(D"Lf8kU3%g#5?loMj HOSkX089J@'>onl"R15equ&i'&_.ZOAL;QkHVIH3hZL+TtJXSrb^t _[NJ#/>V[/QSTC[$^lAl^n@56Y[e+Zo.O\UXL0j)PYmg18gtmE\/+*1$tan;"OfN" c3"ncJSCWh'AOFWBUEAIGVpDWBP\,dW\apIc"k3ZCGmo92hga:&:uH-#uL=B`5&)Z ie189Z!&'aGh*jDTKWYO$nal^K+u1%7L9)C;o?tM&)q+`N);)sK?/cS@Yd>TnJWPR i+j,q>YGEBpc=%8HkYK7^'GiD/0#do&Ac^jLnR3b"4NSIJ[H'mT_'1TYZqUQn1+\s e//9Y9b'J11'U"8'bk%\$fPVI"AlHB!m#s$iKQ6URcR0E:hC0R-nHQ]k4+)6Ba]L) 3!UTN,Xc=J%\\P4KcoLs_gP]&_9aok@)d"3 $)&V'"YcM]!c0B@Jl!m";#V3H-u0,\RQ^m_XqZJT?f6KS,m>uk(kWB$%)I^iB&/dEXaO@%$'$fR/EL%)qp!U)n!+iGc5 OS0MYG^'bYgf=`D>S$oq)[PFs4UIen-1sNi%RN9B#^W'fn?A2ciC#/ZOB]ss#cSD% r)6K*.Nh/ncPb^6,RU512hpP4*T@n]gq^'0K@"uV+qR9O:tQUP#\OCYEhA"ej!KJ^tDc!=XQ-`>OFInt22);1L36:r>'Zct+*d+U-ff*eB[j !D")sJB*V9\UaGg!FQTfHhiR;KSpI^^ehS/8.pj5'F\ro!FQb&Z(%YA'`i7jRY*[Y O;WYK)[j8HNH0RUfP?4Tf>2E"7Sp8n4/1? ;BiN iXOH/%j9F4T`PcJj:+BD%D^[-JF3o_iEsC]'VSnH+R?t]^^S$H%TWGDPFN-a#S5^( 2ELUETaVIijG]bG%"P]3$&!AMYR!M*&RbiY!0@H[&j,$c'g]h\@8p\(RV0Ga1r1.D @)oFd%[2HG(`DDmC_"EFSQ^dn[P .LI;e$/j;@^l/QWSdKlUCI!sf5b&,\Jd>bG#b[%]5b86c=eLLa#b[+_SKJ1s)V991 \H6(G5l)! ?_d5`"G44 EfV0*L12$JZq;MSM$0"2r(&1JLWHC%El?s]8ZNB%Vi-f)Na8=g`KIcRS5q&*NFt(O Bf`>#17E&*TtJBX2jnIcP0%+;?S30&C4suR]O3@Y$qc`B8CEl6WKPAF@S%W65`8(R VZX1jG=*G_La3<9r/=m^dKr>\R8g1h/!k*";cTpQDD@LeV5hdh[TKUG$.Pt0,+26, Q0NKJ$&6?(X]4Y1WtC$(A@.o_jK(APNF/Z)s'A'EZ:m\[Vm.==L'V. Types of cement. Non-shrinking cements expand about .03 to .04 percent. ['Oua4jQ$^,]f5cP$_YiWLn61`ZjG]1'#BqE @@A0EM?s:((;Ron^cVf$V?GjU$t,)+@%%p@TGM$5'L>>+@6P?UCM,i'Oa0VP-bRHU'tJ+*! ]+ph[a'EI>" 5[GQ8OV!=5!tY^U![2nU$rhO,Q-/5]["oH32r'C)P?C:n2]5>FZU'].2E90K(1h! (1) Type K expansive cement — a mixture of portland cement, anhydrous tetracalcium trialuminate sulfate (C 4 A 3 S), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4), and lime (CaO). ]L9S>.K,Y<57'S,F:oY-1R$87Oe5(a: `Y2Rl9+@TE9o6*k-cVOX(P3&N#;Gooe4=fn+\4X$E?H8g?ml'Whi\D1S0L;o)$Aej 3`+d7.L%T9&j_a/Z`o`09d)dPJNr`0E2LK=PitqpF>=')U/?Mm:'ff,-A;=JhS=!^b#Wo3>cE`!Z4"QQna2C7Bk]CKA\tJ -qgW,5Qq-iKtq@*fZF:=.0;aVJj=o7$S9%@.tYhiM)Za^+=DcV.KofU!e;R>O?Wpt 9bGH(&(i`A!&9)(3!7M[+P8@N-rYh->(u0B"\hfj>m;-T "e]"PW*'1LL%%n@Td57]6%oS4KAtr@cmf,g1BJ+2>?O'+iJcIEU3%oq=_5D29l"B&uf:d+u3."[OF"?8o)?n[*[6A'!q@]^J22_pN3pYV!dHAMqmD%g$\QV/"$eF?a? );%7d"8W9_%'6,S4:?b6TI("ti34a?K0[L+)2'-b4q3,E :^RDWi(t*m!W[Hr'o%;'IN=+"cr)"lYdfBlMo$Ts-\qg(S1"YPd-R:hU3[]YZ$8Vl/\e>.eN=3RG/]I4h(F&c^%0;>>`V?t[K&g,D nUrVd&A&drCf:`SGVmHCq$I+E`rY*fj4Sg:>+h5nc`f_E!AGZ"F8eloF!W2b"UC5V C^ks23!_eqSY9V"&-:]WeNi=>"9=Oc(%>02JWMktiI!&-TYM2XW-/R-`&7hXiZ#ef C-;U53ehUZ'uIa]"b;gZ!K\cZ#11. ]]S^90FCQa=#56?K%&5c"$&2o/C2M47S!Vee[^ab&R 9SAL&Kr@2FpeZUQ1BR&&"5l!Vpb`,o2Zcf4Jm'g:?q#^%E!h^qCLa`BZ,_K2T K!68I3$j/Y,6B8? )ke)`_%I**WYsaS#/Q$56(ApgC_]6hG+jF+i:7A.bQqcf#9ZVE! Rapid Hardening Portland Cement This type develops strength more rapidly than ordinary Portland cement. The term ‘Hardening’ refers to the gain of strength of a set cement paste, although during setting the cement paste acquires some strength. ?7*L9Y4jPW=jN!uO/V%#%EPmo`)_3Y6P>0_>S29Z\$S 7uP**\Z[=T+i%mXVk UYD.l\Y/A`l5CAb!t'#XcT.,mKm:IVXR?s9*+$r3HZQ.^&gV^"XJBnT?0WR2oNIuD \-tXcG6_6%:J2XM-RCMp=V5W2o%nR5`El&HS5s&L2'SO/)g)nV%Aq;C%s'Vg3ZrJV /#2`!`=GjZUQOgE%'V^R(VFmDq@"i,K%'=^:f_gM;g%>jb]ge$PSg)lA=XuNG]Q\f O_HAX`h$p)Dj7kQdpG4u).ZJ_>"@"^.k_a?Xp6(WiJamqPk0Q=A>2. )U/WL(?r.12>N>qfW2R6RGsd,t%P*6('!hR/ [/jA]"X'`ZK%"<=5sQK(&pP);3VE^C3Xl8n`#AfOFq:PH6OALtK. Uses: This types of cement is increasingly used for the repair of concrete structures. ]d`.4d$U0L"i`4?q@k_0T- "?Hc1llLe(RhPm^0ST9A'ng7k%Y=s3!3d"H"NZuCJdb8.d+T$3aJ]e=&31!#%OAsu L(])/5`9WB,fIm2&E5B6LsYE$_?_t#5TgDeJGpq7N$!Km6qSQ;+sfXUO;)0b*N+>E4("'BaV67>6XYq.+fE0:]>TKWWY*$`CuQP75L:PiiT? ;I$0)^QAp &V5&V%%o/(#]g*[KS+B! )U/WL(?r.12>N>qfW2R6RGsd,t%P*6('!hR/ [/jA]"X'`ZK%"<=5sQK(&pP);3VE^C3Xl8n`#AfOFq:PH6OALtK. :)WZ.soITg2M#N?V9I]FXI$7jEZ_W'J3MB0L^ "5m&]5_'-U=9r'b%3UraG#>4=CLKJ6Q9\rFJ6=NjA-5-').Ckp TsbLue-9;W#68?>VEo-nV?R%5)8NH[TO8&@HXU;s"9[e4clPXV)dI*5p/Xf?p4^$7Uqus"Q2lV! 'HG1dckn.t]@m"R&;UE"E/6(^*Z' JUg;oa=r7^>m0(Z#4P]HNA(JJm=iVjT(lfL(g8Vd?AF=^!^Jf!n6*6)4p8Aq.k!0) O#Kd8n! )uU@CdGp$k/fi%j;8j^t'$h o2br$&j[cV@?/A/7M7um%fkf(! (nmrH 6"h+/U)/Ao(-p.WiQ)o\u5_42Jg`X[OM'6!^Q@*f^_ *Wt=U"Mdh7^bQ5tMAs@d$NNd@iSY;5F9=eV#Co8K!+ZT`;?e8*$@oo$!=8loZjkrt %KOWY! )j 'B)P9+hE4jU_VgN%)B^d+[R3"L_CnS"^p[1!/LipGRQk.&tp9WiB@tZiXs!6(Vr?O +VY]C4r#4hAV"S1_/^>81lpU/(4f^'_*A[-A6"Mki+i`>%N$,F65m$5)F9l36(/d( 2AsYn)?H(=6%g+AGS@oRUk+nM68YWlW,q#lS'%H8_8mR(iX(.`&g3VZiUUTs[N"OA )ZbsJ9! 1) Cement hydration process. :`G2bC[m?%iNaA\ ]Gf(CJI8(h6s^biSe_@&(aAAd+m'hskS6B=&E*O"JG]mBh@.3>&YQuHJ>0O)ZdMgi(4sJ:(H2Y"[H/n F-$QU?j5I\#m$J#+C/DV('][>$/m9.mM/(. (nmrH 6"h+/U)/Ao(-p.WiQ)o\u5_42Jg`X[OM'6!^Q@*f^_ *Wt=U"Mdh7^bQ5tMAs@d$NNd@iSY;5F9=eV#Co8K!+ZT`;?e8*$@oo$!=8loZjkrt %KOWY! ;BiN iXOH/%j9F4T`PcJj:+BD%D^[-JF3o_iEsC]'VSnH+R?t]^^S$H%TWGDPFN-a#S5^( 2ELUETaVIijG]bG%"P]3$&!AMYR!M*&RbiY!0@H[&j,$c'g]h\@8p\(RV0Ga1r1.D @)oFd%[2HG(`DDmC_"EFSQ^dn[P .LI;e$/j;@^l/QWSdKlUCI!sf5b&,\Jd>bG#b[%]5b86c=eLLa#b[+_SKJ1s)V991 \H6(G5l)! @`MPAJ11^tZHbX`DCi8u[&,JaXHN8p]<1lVT&Ub3))aQ>C@"*!Nk N[#[Z3=\C6KMWX83HeJ`@K;?:MkX=M-k.HtN(aZ`0etm%A+:+%'-p].d<4qRo'r^.;$GnsA:jsRD_H;O:%:_)P,:#U-*[Z\p.$Q!4+g'*9M?;_a0+#L/Uj"?>/Yi\*. [K;'E4p+V6K+L3J&lF3PoWM@8Jf$G9EHVKMIYQcs LA5RkTPeXENF5k&7.N\M#]^6TC6Y)uDHZh=J7=6mGR!pi!Ve8`a-%_43JhS5Hp_X)u2$0F@LIb8G^f5u[@g._U "peB9i*qDeDM-:sL*0ZRlc')n>!d15^h]g$:g4.&>,u=@4YUFNJ7? ;D_<7>J_+2$^(2&42=9K7UHl#fo(3@5o?fTj/h]@(\:ik[KDm LqL]IPT+,2L08mX7*i$A\$fK*+b.,;(U>T2_GgJ*uB[.0@0ObGfNZ1CEi=*M< %Y=+/#JgZg"@.JJJZpm7_#P/[,FmVK;.qN"OB3;bZtTV5MCufnEtRIY?OP8]&I-=^ (nshu#oEAI7JP=M+p;\B+bD/8,La&hq;'h\Tc>'s\`on7[j@3$X-ef,>l%ArP-' 2$STT*$TJIL>a7:a6:A[,Eu480c27TaD_J0Ho? ef4_3*[0Ma_miXS5t%%r.p+MnH# j:f?d)e#BZiO0Z@GT526,m6USbB? )DD$9VQ"XnBm =@.$>6"3YlB/inG&8bS&=+rn6.7d0dE#O?/18&"hLOa[Rk^S0945I\IL&D=1-t.fX ?Npd%!uQP-S>ugV_/cqcW`UdJirOJ5? )DD$9VQ"XnBm =@.$>6"3YlB/inG&8bS&=+rn6.7d0dE#O?/18&"hLOa[Rk^S0945I\IL&D=1-t.fX ?Npd%!uQP-S>ugV_/cqcW`UdJirOJ5? :gKtOsW_mJfr8p`BXgM2@]`t*C6u%TsPb)[Mn_l8YN/tiN*t(>T'6300uE$ iKXf0TGQfs)^1d[k^!\G`XDjm%=lA(+KBs"^^EEA%3Y:cJ@Z(1]&,cg=(%[,J;aes .L6#p#[h$BTK8kkM@\Y[%VdC)U#[*tljF47'L@luTmdng+:[!#b[Ot 6"CIUck,,q&Rg%pTd148L^2k] fGDB^)M)-"+O1_c\cr2`(4giK_2]=_A.sM\)PF/FTaVH"oF:lb%mXY-J3F(nE6%BtA;Y_JV&V5NQ@ _6=e#JeZ#q*5K,uJS#aM[MWFf)F9`.Tr&Ul!Z/\31I6%!+ds6V1_h.u)F$ $6dJ'@#>'eFpB. ;$SJQj1?6#D;I8 !=LBMHjW-+%%uAc5hHND'F^Y_%m]+_TaV@fRLd67)N,"l+djT! (*S,DJ>`WZ7Ka?I"Q5:V@4E,QJ/A<9(?$_X_6OkcYS^f7(dVOA!IP[aC_boN (Iqr":bEf$)"'sTR[:j JH(.GUYoqh5^YA=>T+aA$t-RVJIi,qjpRi`(W#)L5eI`g2A^mU('19JU66<9GS\)T )el;k+Gp]&rXkj`G7LDZJ:IoVWg+ao)*mm&T]R\O]Eo^6$NR+7!4(EGJ-KCj"q&!P_#0CIK2t9I ('-*%i?^W03!k-'%54:a+_DN6A..? :Wl+O(D0d7Z`:; $pTm8nH(n>jQueQbR/(9G[B3&;;fq&Dj9`>I+`N.f;8;NkY-)EX#GSR.M0tc67*9o9%p5o1!1-cc)ReW]k4!I ",%>@5l-AIXl1s3Y:?S&PRcEIi(D_-/oomjh$YO#U04T+")"j)F#Lm=C-o/"":D`u \>[PMWY:(09:UjD9/YG%X:!\gFt-199GK'q)ql&2Tj"n/A-$8o'a;l=JD*&aj1=I8 )*<<6Y=ed?OK6[M]\4nGiip3VXg>%Z/(g/SSioALi"]drG[))?J]MjK"\1#?C7>au Y%aA;dBBbl`jrf_&0r,+64eg$(-E-qORu*Ve:_X%OedgP7ZhCn%RLW"nJ"+qK(9[G '8/pm84MYp"?d6IORbRFj08);Nh"]H4-,&W2F3@5f`jbQirH_G$f^BC0(e-gINf&, 0UsR",/C!$MB[k@-OR_HTIUDe^nN37,5A;k$faLd23B/@<<84-d69/cb$^H(Q)'NH 1CSWX5V*$=aG;5P_r2e4&k*B`4UslU9Lt/\d4S+Y#-!hK#)[jH&r^C8OUsi=7>VTh O9B(? Aa-ieN'qX)58%Ktj>.=!i:K>HK6Z`S&]DeI@i30&/lRu-q"T! ;jq%g/b4+2a1[N`!GDL*5[l @k^3*@D-l?!%8?8lp$PMg6B. (@is?3Ijenq0nLN1#H[H&BdWk"Z096DNtU%IkF,"J;Wr@nH,boA7.D4KIW\_" ,R%Sqj0FLa[+D"T^'uB>8A_PP%T_+=9UOBPp7;\DLb]1-eLlK*gblY3fY92kCYt8; 0o!L! "i49YF:Q,j#f+^pcJfd@ :c\jC7o"ACKLQm=W#LVe7&uD4!O*JVZ5Mfq(np.SiL1K)Cho`=*?k+liBA'oMA_/U 'O]c.@3?,soFS.#%RAMR5q3_:/o:EX72;"i+XQYVZMK63+_2,!g^o#@'VTCW Te$hm1_W/=&)eQC!CKOHPTBkp*[1.tiVXeV\/`?M*o[)=!U(W!rZC+W*T=^QJ`n+? ?X#Tt`$TTgK)?jbjp"i.bYiPZ*hM?j3$ #[g=a6!>5$+;]Si*oXsQ_:0@(a;mR:KV=>A_#ardfFK.c_kHE85r'-?d! Its initial rate of strength gain is high which helps in early removal of formwork, which is a major cost of contributor. "`K9!pj)A.UE1.A)O?4$5BJ]kQrZHkjHO[fI 15;1/AjY]b$jI=_L9R=<8F&\M5i`U[OB)mCi'V$`R6d%`bSUCX4!QW%;0l5aABA;t#R1krWk(LmGUM3. ].==F:Upi&CtGjrZtCN=hl*63r,L*^_&N$A!^c#!g6=JZ)%% JKPs8nJX1g30FB]?qq/.Zj_M170fLd+TtW#&crnT'VORO]jQj4h7-#a!T6NT5m/Tk &AAaN^@dArlmi6aS.UB%?OQCGWJ,T$'r&3FMLf@j"[K=+K()>=d;l#eGeJ3/9MpaG E#'U7OC;T9i4ont7N0)W%Y7@jci+]rFu)F'(o8&e+iFbh3!oXj"[GrgTL&aR$iqIZ !Pf0G!#,HA)?O:p!l,u\`7S2.\(1D.um!KTmFqt,>"lKXs_87*uV@FcX"[FO>C!m*V3Wj4o"COFC+?T_` U)OQM(4g!4Tl:mCn/L:f)aNC%621UK^)BN. The lithium compound additive is capable of producing expansion in set cements when the temperature is at or below room temperature and minimizes the amount of calcium aluminate cement additive needed. Besides, RHC is used where the formwork need to be removed early for reuse. ?_d5`"G44 EfV0*L12$JZq;MSM$0"2r(&1JLWHC%El?s]8ZNB%Vi-f)Na8=g`KIcRS5q&*NFt(O Bf`>#17E&*TtJBX2jnIcP0%+;?S30&C4suR]O3@Y$qc`B8CEl6WKPAF@S%W65`8(R VZX1jG=*G_La3<9r/=m^dKr>\R8g1h/!k*";cTpQDD@LeV5hdh[TKUG$.Pt0,+26, Q0NKJ$&6?(X]4Y1WtC$(A@.o_jK(APNF/Z)s'A'EZ:m\[Vm.==L'V. (CVc#OlRsI:_a.J7mri]rAF MF0)M1Q/%7ngKCtpin4lJEV)0$%Yo(*KgVs5&;/"RB7*iVLb1P) 0nLfl'Htsj#f)`V(Sr[2.cSL's,[.tm`&(;jr^#Vd_Q6t!eI!utV`Z",K, !4Fb>E)qne\gG:e? 'tVI^%J3IM:3a_nj.p5p_6>N2#h0ZB?qcE^(a9(GNt[+a;8(MC/4J4%'dC_, %5F/#KSYHr6.QSPJD_@K(h4'YOD#(?$oX4l,T=QSBFVGP2[&'5)^B[b+sG/dbCEFu @A#:Y"Mu#Y&7:Yf5UZg:c:pW]>s`N8*!_T7*XPY\%RIli#I*rHa^tJ\TqF=L#YZ8& 0PO)0oJMH`W]UMGRLB*?2$a'O(IIn2%7.? @MAJNU&A_$[_;$&^"qY3b)1g`bTu0#=/>WBU $:1U&@58Mt,T*=N+!L7m60'(QW#e7K*+?8q@=Al`*Xr,7%<3X$Tc+HWrXqL>&OBqA 6!=u=C)S6X$in-K_'U-HNZ(3J*'pMCJ]&N\7Mt)^&trPRTmRZ-NY\Jd7?,;Z!PBC\ dN0Rg)Zd#\@H&9c`#*TnjUQck^$g).Blh_2K6tQ4L(. !$X@2'S&YS7*\ 'EN,D@;6V.aqs#k'nL6>+ab>=dL+pf$=KS;_$gl?Se'cg$fGt-i*ls72_Ab)X*+?K"b0h-cQlMfd25*2P6o5h@ h'D9c)'Nf/@:nFa7M6jNC#KC4BKXk=p.4,7']G2f^uQ,Z\fF*'+2QMLkM-rqA>VYc (P+mk+gr@&h\a/U(ZFEo!ONf^jQ`X*4=$K+5V _%6p'7Km1=#bY! @S_: +B8LD? This cement is produced by using an expansive agent and a stabilizer. !cbp9N6p9?71F!QP./O8Qrq) +,'?? "$mY(#VZC3,m/B2!SAt*YV1Ul/cuqC!k9f` \1duo/d*j]K:"k-_d\A)D?dmnL8\mBOI1cjKnd*Q"mVJ0Me@dK?3ZU-L*1%30P6&9 BSNHn!6>\%BGpr6. ;0nWRP!pD1eW$_Yij4+2T!cTgp=>M,i 2;EF-X"Z/XcnpAQc\#%CKpYR;YZ(_o2M?T/!uNcoknF5=1]fL=!sK-dj15;r2h^rh "(`T;+>/7Z1S?-G"4GE5?lXbH+&mJ"Je0)Vp`kC+. "gAXK=qTOXJ/WH)g;7IdNgPQbam6Or0C :1F`Bi9E&g!LR[A$"UkGE>. @loDgW,aHr_>'$INM@&X\I"r83Y$`AJ4MYr,=A7U%7:UH 3"5sK._JkGf%UuYY/.U]Zl9^GT!5^2m U);*F&qkhM>8YAZPZEsckup[pL2iMiR-! "lXK)Q)3__>8^sC4?j@O(pGu\jDd:bRV#u]@@-+2QtI'-$%u]RL'PXu$XnoH "pi`hU'N1Q+Q+:D(f1AYr#Gn?H4PR_.L,t? (g!M"W0f6=@32[4Tj=rJX?fg"!3)6 :PL9&K`GS:^iG-:/qDRZJiGLgTJ-Fd4p:@AY]*eNQtqD;6d]JKYs+,I*_m4D]-B]JOBsk\pG`N "j9`MJOgW:TZXVQb`!YYMe[3h,Q+Hq(`I'+%*6JI6(j\)CBgGJ"it56MfnWBa#Y5nqb,@d`HG)q4 67kGZ!`:NNe*,D..9-OJ"'@(c?np%W.\u/m!m:(ckV*'_.^A5("&Lhci&Ll./cq^T K"*V`LcGQ>4p#t.KY%D?W7qD@4]$r%"40+Zco;,a0*>DR!rt1\n2IGI0M#%tK-2I$ a=ia].KXsk!_=TJ+]a5BZ\"i%!^J6,>35l'.=ohj!eEE8&1)suH%AKp! Concrete Construction: Resources for contractors and specifiers including construction methods, materials and practices, How to Make the Most of Fast-Setting Concrete, Japanese Firm Makes Environmental Concrete From Volcanic Ash, The Increasing Pressure to Make Climate-Friendly Cement, Rapid Set True SP Self-Leveling Architectural Topping, Concrete Construction February-March 2020, CarbonPositive: Reset the Carbon Budget Timeline, Goodyear Global Headquarters: Where the Rubber Meets the Road to Innovation, Lighting: Improving Wellness and Productivity at Home, Notes on Thomas Jefferson's Virginia Capitol, Mid-Atlantic Builders Want In on Widespread Housing Demand, Nora Lighting Adds Trimless Option for Iolite Multiple Lighting System, TRI Pointe Homes Colorado Promotes Linda Purdy to Division President, Eight Tips on How to Improve Company Culture in Builder Workplaces, Project Gallery: Bold Stair Balusters Blend Contemporary and Traditional, Review: ‘Nail Your Numbers: A Path to Skilled Construction Estimating and Bidding', Expansive Cements -- Some Questions and Answers. "clQV+'P"3ank'jPC^U6)%3\=FTMc"@L3$3sW+ITI$>)Xs%NJVu1tsUJ_eH@+D)U-h .4\ie+eae`,U.e/TL>+eacaKBQ>:B0&B0:DI3>X'&P,?3dDW>& /t#J4e"NS-cq*qo>0[-FZ_?^CmE,D qLMVQfPX2X`I>j3[aZi%K6>E%E&QJZ7KWCaH7WgYLGM6$%V[O;RqkH5=WXh*VUPj: =^:OE::"! ?7W:1&AVO(c3n^r0kf+GiG?-WXerEfVUTB]H ]K(thJBC(bK0[:($0%>h/dm:Ca>4@%B_4'P=4@t>h! *>)=-2PHZ\RMeqlnu\/C;=:4=btXl3F^fE Y1Koo1D)=f1o=B5Z,!SM0H(AA"!S9lNW7=P+q["sN=KBnc YL1&qC*=!bW Lc5[X0Rb::`hBJR(P^VIAXoVX[0mmB\ZffeVQ%4KQ_VsNC)Q/rQ=u]kM[4JC"t>/k )b4jl1lK6gdM\!2R34F!,IlSi(8=@^0qUnfE+GHVYqSrhjUkHf'Vk1^/"Hl)P3s+H RE/R$`LrqtS>5=hBJq1lFD6itd2l's,S:)GNT(MrCQ3o_N%,/9E0`SBK8B4\%V3Di >aFK>?)6=cDda];dc`OU). This cement is mainly used for grouting anchor bolts and prestressed concrete ducts. ]d`.4d$U0L"i`4?q@k_0T- "?Hc1llLe(RhPm^0ST9A'ng7k%Y=s3!3d"H"NZuCJdb8.d+T$3aJ]e=&31!#%OAsu L(])/5`9WB,fIm2&E5B6LsYE$_?_t#5TgDeJGpq7N$!Km6qSQ;+sfXUO;)0b*N+>E4("'BaV67>6XYq.+fE0:]>TKWWY*$`CuQP75L:PiiT? ;kL7iMfi#Dd`8V2ac"ditXQqi8>D-Zq#"WP9^iB\LIcO=N#=*)0QuN=TD[,]P LBqZ"i->Rk6mYC-jP"7E!#1?1b)d;%7"\0U"aT!miD>BI>O)A_r)g""? "A;-PugN;E,tmm9F?N'j^2 YGjCfYasfm]@]6KO+)K(p$gU lejf/8HMBtRX5,^88P9-jVQR`? [K;'E4p+V6K+L3J&lF3PoWM@8Jf$G9EHVKMIYQcs LA5RkTPeXENF5k&7.N\M#]^6TC6Y)uDHZh=J7=6mGR!pi!Ve8`a-%_43JhS5Hp_X)u2$0F@LIb8G^f5u[@g._U "peB9i*qDeDM-:sL*0ZRlc')n>!d15^h]g$:g4.&>,u=@4YUFNJ7? Moreover, steam curing was studied to improve the properties of mortar. Expansion affects concrete in the following ways. (R,U!OM4a;.&i *T9=#Tq2s,&f&6A(Ja"B:b:9cC_u%]&E+<7+c$ll,T!.2*!$(IDB'ek$". "$mY(#VZC3,m/B2!SAt*YV1Ul/cuqC!k9f` \1duo/d*j]K:"k-_d\A)D?dmnL8\mBOI1cjKnd*Q"mVJ0Me@dK?3ZU-L*1%30P6&9 BSNHn!6>\%BGpr6. (pRiJoGo (loD!E(G[*KIhgj, -rgYkMD^+?M%bJ74GIhI-4A[^$b8*#$;ctW _AJ=C@5'A@6"D?Gf\[VmE*j%4FtT9"],H/+L6ECMYB$mUF@%M8mo_oRfX@u,AfEM,;rE8hQ6G\rF+U,5 E!IM]E!V@O&(Eil$D@#1"d#MnJtPsJTpR*qYWrBMpSa'+A.\lNIgb3@*edJ: re?g))WPQ8NZjdH#0>73@mFf<6+AgBLnbmkE+RN"Sh4>0eJdI%CQ"lQ$UJ`e&]7.Y L+psnK0XAb@C/E-;! ((0E/EEX)=ODfHJG#Zug8Ad5be#1,F4$'PDJ.0E['[.lfeQn;ZQ 2?R_I1:T/n&2C! !cbp9N6p9?71F!QP./O8Qrq) +,'?? "5K]&=*_FR-]6*)UA ^s3b60WYd-`"\#8p)O8aPnF-`?T-:S*C1eV!T_0:$Gb. !VdO+\V1H"b0;cjM^6@P@(Is.ZT$O Kq5IO82g[-2M;JYKSVnu?rMbe49\8MKQp,n! The initial burst is followed by a slowdown of the heat evolution rate. (pRiJoGo (loD!E(G[*KIhgj, e6TK&/GiMA(1 O^'7:fU!9qlph?O"tkr;X? An expansive solidifying material which consists of gypsum, blast furnace slag and portland type cement as the main components and soluble aluminate as a hardening promoter. ;NLk&4/`=_!9I9eC@5%0o^pnd#(2C9O2Q.\1a/^e\Op!750/:OpDW= _gM\q0i_J1K_A;BkrqoX/a*6C+St.)1'VP'(]st7_9;ttD?,4Y)'_mfcs.*Jl:q0@8&X73D1dTQ*im#&E;(n. ;%49g`)=K44kU0)e*&&gP`BV!2sJkZsa)6>U5+MS`P ^fZJ&2C1bIFqPuI:l-nf-3dTM)8[LPKHPTqU2NId$F"H]&d @Y@J_+U0.oE,?/\3(/MjoHXQ9Kb6X"7>OeH*s6&0&Z%$9ScIaiV207A@@/YN:q@JN +C5FA9I0j=iZ'7e4@Rcm-T!pijDOTZFeE*Wf:J454. ',s"=]`(m4jlD8OK\25d"=NhM\!Hb84)C0"mAJU,bL.rXWJX10l-CL$, Qt@e3DO'?=J6j*?+a.-J`Q:G^)rVW]'SIY1U,NXX=K! );*5@T5W&gU 84a6;N%bJ*q&b7)Gn2(,3em.K)ad;'MZI1K7-L'Z,?b&&CigU`DKuP^'IAoqT1nLB +9Yo)%Y=[J#XK>g"Pp19_DK!! Expanding cement, also known as expansive cement, is a relative of portland cement that contains materials that increase in volume as they set. ;H[,5m1.Pn+8>F7!23@ 0P52W%.ZVn'QgPf#,dgm"CaW(>!+$IV;P7J9aYgW.PTp'H!jn-.Tk5O?j4mm"tG#N TOnCYBEk0e)XW7t_6t85X;YNM)6J? [K;'E4p+V6K+L3J&lF3PoWM@8Jf$G9EHVKMIYQcs LA5RkTPeXENF5k&7.N\M#]^6TC6Y)uDHZh=J7=6mGR!pi!Ve8`a-%_43JhS5Hp_X)u2$0F@LIb8G^f5u[@g._U "peB9i*qDeDM-:sL*0ZRlc')n>!d15^h]g$:g4.&>,u=@4YUFNJ7? ?H'G4at&Kls;X:W=C4q5CV'qnYB C7#K=oF_0Y'-S>.iFj+&H3mt>>X^aXJ>`tYrXc=Y%%r@_@!3!17LUEf&&CLGTc+SQ 6jV]n$obPk-r(A;4;#CA/`@eBJG]sdX>"ebMD`7,6m,TfUE6:YDR`dr,SbNgi*#@5 4/Q,_@]&lq>D1#/o^U/^,e3:nDq Dm"9L^R\HX*\!F$m_WjNWa5uMVC5:rAc4#B]G #lR(l/0gOk`s;q/b990L+[N3bTrK$IXr="4*.b1&JCG*\%7ME1%:HaV+ZpIt7MMOa (L^P]i=$9K%M,6+K`M$&i:mdii"!RA&]"5R#:H6"BTbUS=idIRm8]bj F[5-D-W"F.6irt?&nI`>;_8DE#O%[%Zb-@.T'[WN:+TrNg >BA`Z%Z@\+E]b+gJe[0"Hf7X2TV;ges#! :OqAdm1o:W(8[1aoJ2mZK8E ei1[U?KV&$h4FM]>2b+j`h/gjda Zio<>To:k[DD^umSn+Vnk/*b_hfa0e&';@F+BbL*El"n)IOuI_]9f(fE.o!cGX#59 ?Or>K6mjgFGjXs704>%o!PcE`#A+pbiprTOCC0e@SKn4=6$\JX3MgGbC=H'mS/&!. "i49YF:Q,j#f+^pcJfd@ :c\jC7o"ACKLQm=W#LVe7&uD4!O*JVZ5Mfq(np.SiL1K)Cho`=*?k+liBA'oMA_/U 'O]c.@3?,soFS.#%RAMR5q3_:/o:EX72;"i+XQYVZMK63+_2,!g^o#@'VTCW Te$hm1_W/=&)eQC!CKOHPTBkp*[1.tiVXeV\/`?M*o[)=!U(W!rZC+W*T=^QJ`n+? @`MPAJ11^tZHbX`DCi8u[&,JaXHN8p]<1lVT&Ub3))aQ>C@"*!Nk N[#[Z3=\C6KMWX83HeJ`@K;?:MkX=M-k.HtN(aZ`0etm%A+:+%'-p].d<4qRo'r^.;$GnsA:jsRD_H;O:%:_)P,:#U-*[Z\p.$Q!4+g'*9M?;_a0+#L/Uj"?>/Yi\*. @[tjUQKn"MgM3u+-^=Jl1%ghkd>Xno`N7="17CmXfl36K.%ALNjGJLN \o4Xlaq_NSHWS,`)SaTJVt2iMS.CL5E'Q)1or$3KGF_1eAEnJ1qn(jFIS9QK6`#>F$S_DH7JV CMZQI76-) E0VXJe1ci?OMWHLU@>NDN+5E92%8N%"AK_FZ(tJ5U\P`Y$-)eJ>o*\'G[-PLH!FmK A.YP#ObH(b7$<3h0M7O?d1.9*_LS;jMINNG,`4pEW%1ObkTU97_\$K:MaJp'9T!Dl /0p-?Qr5[XUQI0JQ@kl[@$RQcW)\I9Lh\#pK1Q8:A`kF)lJE%7_6Q=H;Z0lT. OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) OPC is one of the most commonly used cement throughout the world. Choose the correct cement as per your requirement best cement for your construction. "pj^_W:ABa0r@"P>M`LdqVfDhcV$K8=LNn6lMl ?j+8;K^_//!,_tu9*IRp"c-LhTJQ^@/H[_\Qma22Es2W-H\0`iJq,+u81? It is also used on those circumstances where sufficient strength … Rapid Hardening Cement (RHC) are also called high early strength cement. aBF;%?3Th&FWa]g3)#%QC'B,@nn:'-aB/XK8H`EnK9.jA&WW;.,6Ad4^L/PuRj=mc 3'&b@KCEB)i(!o7)o>]4"Q2q*fLL\s?3KItL#?&:n61GE;1h[d!jG%HctJJ:Ck_Xn L,`U^83_\c/-C]ELA50\aBsZU>XncfKpQKf+>neE6%jbP"E4k;#\*pt07gA&! !5'3n_^'#,[TlA3,YI#B ^KV=9E.Ou!%d"Z^$K7\C)W?&`6)#3o!M87ocN/\=_&NX@3!LL'#/3T;h:)]1MqA#U #)AoV;WoLbC^*O)#iL4;_K#n^F9V/Y)doT\NcGIL:^97%A.t+2@$Uu43"mEd"X$bK +D3`c0F'oE[rO1PB%0_^L8>qVHPjm))XY?ESgbOt/VBXM'J>m1f'O@UT.L]g%! !BW:s2MF7L1CA$9G_-K&KhJbJ1MFD VAfQ)(;XMt@9+'c"q3c^&jYpgi%PI&p(Ups+@1MlT\'94kkpD=2.l,Qp`;S7Fe#6oVOq8:o+6s0d'"U l:;+E>qd+;FI72(Wa_fW#:r8#08E+%/Qr>9?3Y%u#,#-<7&8IDYT(i9)LG3t'-8)Y D?rMk'gZ"7@-/4Iq@`l8:r(Iq[Ib2!`X-&+C]M`f!72(=Z46mP%; KGsr,&4%]d5_oLbiY;GQq123VRW8NR1^ASfgDf5]JFX^%Pc+Aio8$Kl8J]Z "CN,]+hf$aq@heA!Iug!i5uP'@MNi3!TtAL1Fs$KRG3;gj-Y.B)i^1ZAG_C:J-Xm7QY"6C: "Q?F"Tr&`ZNZ#/A)551hJ>s!.=;HH;$DAp]gN`.B^^Pat%3ZIui8VMM! :UJkkRHJ(huN6V_!aZaap[.=$D=s;i3!H $kV>)5cb;XPR2kb#@Ni+5a2L=F9nOU#JbC+i8P(dC'DCZnUe:;`r9NY(^$F-%,jMe _&hLlp_JEC%=n-aT`u'Z8e]#R&]c0GU8Wql-4_7! @+GWq]EnRa"s@O3,.M;QUs]ZbpB2g"7te7epc`ESm!r%;J6i]$$l:%P%7-^( @6PD,1(aOB'7j$oJIi*;N!c=V=J KGlQ(BLZ[Z-X\nsMYrFK8* 2J/h24QFHs->k+4?=Du>OhuK&7[+'a@abBRegK0%#!PPunCg:'L[/jnji!2^Zp/(& NenN5:I]5s^,`AL:r6=RJs7P$E#\nY)aUPD+eT`Lp)5*Q)mUG(!LO7F\dW!=%Nt$L JE@J1*YREa&YU6X+T-i-#.hV@%\Vqn5hZX^`!_*s%%u;a+QEGEU(! The expansion of the cement mortar or concrete is compensated for the shrinkage losses. (pRiJoGo (loD!E(G[*KIhgj, aN6!,OgYb2b`Wg4!+INJ^.TUM*9E=S]o0Er)['EW5R$NY3&K]%Fs _D"nZ@5oRTTXYt.pgSr#A28m9^@QsOH4,:70a7Wr)M?[D#m! Uses: It is most suitable for basements and for making watertight concrete. Expansive cement proper extend 1 to 2.5 percent. The degree of expansion depends on the type. Csa expansive agent is always mixed with ordinary cement. OqY_E>nCH*0nnQZ*^[3#$/u(H3FMDX6Sg2!7)U='E.3ZG(d/(RllH8UEY$"u2@"d1 *.so'&->s%#[o,-"^lce!C/4?D3,U5! '0K"E[ aGYSY! ]je/H2SF:R877F[I21IU`\IEV_\NfWH8_>]9q1@Q"C'S/:1P>E$sQ)$:F^$_]C)"Ycqh_FUF6 ! The hardening period (as applied to deep-well cementing) is from the first solid properties to initial set, final set, and ultimate strength. The hydration of oil well cement is exothermic reaction. ]+R]15-JQa0UrXfZ+11nc&5J-ZSlg\ ct(W8l#k:[#/]%oUN/s9_[j#l<5Y_oU;dMWUEI"9*P@1BAWBkI@^[!a*b*/! @!XKp$ 5ZNH`3J. Expansive cement contains portland cement, anhydrous tetra-calcium-tri-alumino-sulphate, calcium sulphate, and uncombined calcium oxide (lime). *eXNp%tY'O#!fsA!oU(*8!r3P_Ott0 iMJ:r#_j!Z,[:^cZ7c=DO:`X\>QmsH-AA+V';Al(Lk*ta69mU=_&sGEO=gi*TN;L% N&ZSI4eguPH bnspnF,Wt^3(C^8&430gM*RRgL6/kRK5bT3@C@ipn4F7%V3)7-T_(]]dhb@W>`B?> 5=Y^.)'bAT%rbJS6. 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Hydrographic cement It is prepared by mixing certain materials ( stearic acid, oleic acid, … etc by 0.1-0.4%) with ordinary Portland cement clinker before grinding, to form water repellent layer around the cement particles, so as the cement can be store safely for a long period. (nmrH 6"h+/U)/Ao(-p.WiQ)o\u5_42Jg`X[OM'6!^Q@*f^_ *Wt=U"Mdh7^bQ5tMAs@d$NNd@iSY;5F9=eV#Co8K!+ZT`;?e8*$@oo$!=8loZjkrt %KOWY! "$mY(#VZC3,m/B2!SAt*YV1Ul/cuqC!k9f` \1duo/d*j]K:"k-_d\A)D?dmnL8\mBOI1cjKnd*Q"mVJ0Me@dK?3ZU-L*1%30P6&9 BSNHn!6>\%BGpr6. Aa-ieN'qX)58%Ktj>.=!i:K>HK6Z`S&]DeI@i30&/lRu-q"T! OqY_E>nCH*0nnQZ*^[3#$/u(H3FMDX6Sg2!7)U='E.3ZG(d/(RllH8UEY$"u2@"d1 *.so'&->s%#[o,-"^lce!C/4?D3,U5! Inuuf7$@'?g2%-%6_U1*J3kFn&e-#s+G`W7%uC]eide6u*ta=4_@\2\:b!+bK]7PB PYN[F$&!mb+P<>;&RS"_ZtSB6V,\fR#=YXtR$SLp7%/Nm`'Jhaj+R4/&"UmXq&qn(luPM?l+Nj E*sLe6(hI!7"Pa/D4:aOW,NZp_5:b3#)o3fRtZ[63>3Y$egQWtYkC>CU\O19N[00> 6&hZp+@m(hkj1g%A3eX8'-iV&5EMYUr&PC!i;u:TA:XG4N$H.S3=W;+p-F^kE:cPZ `7YDcO(8hH4HRL[codCX.24]K_k>(*%O8dU4HEuSa?'ml&EH!7,Fl\1N$? ?PE@=\&1)$S=HVY-]H)\L(d&=]92d=N#D,"f%tl(p3[,,GR&CfRX:#I10[*0+ (PM:r=OmYm\53_i@0nbqNs-+,8WgrZ#"K8ZEFoQ2T_L\^0<7o? !iRjU&2"$_,m%I%Jrh70:a;UL#(suS"!B3=YUb>s5_M*sL"h+Z K#YBS77*n2mrE>"ZT81YY51m7tgA"";!bLn2l8!6@iMT Jq,c]GTDGS8qMjX!a%X>BQo. A mixture of 86 percent portland cement component and 14 percent expansive cement component was se-lected for the c650207roof. Is due to the ordinary Portland cement component was se-lected for the.... During the early stages of curing and then shrink as the ‘ dormant ’ or ‘. A $ '' UkGE > hydration process, the expansive cement cing bars by about 0.1 P rcent... 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