For control at waste disposal sites, refuse should be deposited onto the same area as inorganic wastes to deteriorate the capacity of breeding resources, or the disposed refuse should be covered with inorganic wastes (15 cm thickness). Journal of Economic Entomology 86: 540-454. In another study fly larva distribution was higher in manure at temperatures from 17 to 35 °C(19). The most important damage related with this insect is the annoyance and the indirect damage produced by the potential transmission of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and nematodes) associated with this fly. Furnici (Lasius niger) Viespi. (On-line). Like all flies (Diptera), houseflies have only one pair of wings. The adult black dump fly is similar in appearance to the adult house fly (Hogsette and Jacobs 2003). MacDonald RS, Surgeoner GA, Solomon KR. Doctor, J. Adult house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. In North Florida, releases conducted with Sphalangia endius showed that they could successfully parasitize pupae, both above and below the soil surface. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! However, under suboptimal conditions the life cycle may require up to two months. Identification: House fly adults typically occur in and around barns, stables, feedlots and confined animal facilities. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual … Continuous exposure of flies to insecticides has led to development of insecticide resistance to many insecticides. 2001. January 24, 2012 (Bryant and Hall, 1999; Kozielska, et al., 2006; Kozielska, et al., 2011; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Houseflies exhibit a polygynous mating system. The complaint threshold density of the house fly at waste management sites may be 150 individuals per flypaper per 30 minutes. (Bryant and Hall, 1999; Kelling, et al., 2002; Bryant and Hall, 1999; Kelling, et al., 2002), The main food sources of houseflies are milk, sugar, blood, feces, and decaying organic matter such as fruits and vegetables. All garbage receptacles should be located as far from building entrances as possible. Figure 6. Each female fly can lay up to 500 eggs in several batches of 75 to 150 eggs over a three to four day period. Gandacii germani și orientali. University of Kentucky Entomology. Among the more important are Muscidifurax and Sphalangia spp. Howard LO, Bishopp FC. Raspandire: Musca comuna, cunoscuta si sub denumirea de musca de casa, (stiintific: musca domestica) isi are originea din stepele Asiei centrale, dar acum o putem regasi pe toate continentele, fiind adaptate la toate tipurile de … (Bryant and Hall, 1999; Kelling, et al., 2002), Houseflies taste food through taste hairs, many of which are located on their feet. Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. In both of these cases, the male leaves. The larva goes through three instars and a full-grown maggot, 7 to 12 mm long, has a greasy, cream-colored appearance. The pathogens are transported on the fly s cuticle and proboscis, by regurgitation or through the feces (Greenberg, 1970, 1973). Female flies need access to suitable food (protein) to allow them to produce eggs, and manure alone is not adequate. In cooler weather, hatching takes up to 24 hours. In animal facilities, insecticides are often applied to the favored resting places of adults, or bait stations established to poison adults with either solid or liquid formulations. Jalil, M., J. Rodriguez. Swan, L., C. Papp. Houseflies exhibit a wide range of dispersal. Kozielska, M., I. Adults are inactive at night but move to artificial light during both day and night. Jacobs Sr., S. 2007. LaBrecque, G., D. Meifert, C. Smith. Environmental Entomology 14: 159-164. Photograph by Jim Kalisch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The optimal temperature for larval development is 35 to 38°C, though larval survival is greatest at 17 to 32°C. Adults are gray to black, with four dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. Naturwissenschaften, 96: 1127-1132. A count of 100 or more fecal or vomit spots per card per week indicates a high level of fly activity and a need for control. (Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Houseflies live in both urban and rural areas, especially where humans are present. Accessed Breeding of the house fly. February 24, 2012 Predators and parasitoids of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in cattle confinements in west central Nebraska. Musca domestica is the most common flies all over the world. This species is always found in association with humans or the activities of humans. The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, 4th Edition. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Prepupa and sequence of puparia by age for the house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. 1925. The legless maggot emerges from the egg in warm weather within eight to 20 hours. 1987. 1988. All populations sampled showed evidence of the presence of Hermes transposons (Figure 2). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19, 3: 879-888. 1993. (Bryant and Hall, 1999; Hewitt, 1914; Robinson, 2005), Adult houseflies are diurnal, and their activity peaks at the hottest and driest part of the day, between 2 and 4pm. This sense allows them to avoid obstacles while flying. Because human garbage and feces are the most preferred source for larvae development, houseflies are most associated with urban areas. This is why larvae are commonly found in garbage. Gullan, P., P. Cranston. (Hewitt, 1914; Marshall, 2006; Murvosh, et al., 1964; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), The process of mating begins when the male strikes the female. In North Carolina, tests showed that when house fly populations occur near the surface on the drier periphery of the manure, the conditions favor parasitism by Muscidifurax raptor. They are most abundant during the warm seasons, but some adults may survive through the winter season in temperate areas. (no longer available online). living in landscapes dominated by human agriculture. Morgan PB, Weidhaas DE, Patterson RS. Background odour induces adaptions and sensitization of olfactory receptors in the antennae of houseflies. Though houseflies intake food through their labella, they taste their food through their feet. Humans have taken advantage of this trait, developing commercial repellents with odors they find unpleasant. Houseflies are 4 to 8 mm long, and 6.35 mm long on average. Researches on Population Ecology, 16, 2: 188-197. A minimum of five cards should be placed in each animal facility and left in place for seven days. Bryant, E., A. The Housefly, its Natural History, Medical Importance, and Control. The species composition of fly population at several types of problem sites in urban areas. (Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Houseflies are primarily found in temperate regions. Accessed Also, when consumed by flies, some pathogens can be harbored in the mouthparts or alimentary canal for several days, and then be transmitted when flies defecate or regurgitate. Indoors, the control of flies includes automatic misters, fly paper, electrocuting and baited traps that can be used in milk rooms and other areas of low fly numbers. Females can lay all of their eggs after fertilization by just one male. The distribution of sex-determinants in field populations of Musca domestica domestica L. was studied in 62 samples of flies collected at 53 sites (animal farms) between 1975 and 1981 in an area stretching North–South from Denmark (+ Iceland) to Sicily.. Karyological observations and genetic analyses demonstrated the existence of three types of population along a latitudinal cline. The manure should be removed once very early in the spring before any flies appear. As many as 10 to 12 generations may occur annually in temperate regions, while more than 20 generations may occur in subtropical and tropical regions. Food and materials on which the flies can lay eggs must be removed, destroyed as a breeding medium, or isolated from the egg-laying adult. Ross EH. A virgin female readily copulates and thrusts her ovipositor into the male genital opening. Musca domestica domestica Linnaeus; Taxonomic Tree Top of page. A female lays approximately 500 eggs throughout her life. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species, having more than one female as a mate at one time, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Rutz DA, Axtell RC. 1999. It takes 5 days for the larvae to completely develop. at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1401240202/abstract. Musca domestica was first described by Linnaeus in 1758 in the 10th edition of the Systema Naturae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63 (3): 738-744. The Housefly is a ubiquitous insect found in close proximity to humanity wherever he has gone. Access to animal manure does not lengthen adult life and they live longer at cooler temperatures. Mating lasts 30 minutes to 2 hours. The head contains one pair of dark hooks. House Fly (Musca Domestica). Accessed The black dump fly: A larval predator of house flies. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books Ltd.. McGavin, G. 2000. Predation by Predators of the House Fly in Manure: Effects of Predator Density, Feeding History, Interspecific Interference, and Field Conditions. Thus, K. oxytoca makes more nutrients available to the houseflies. Environmental Entomology 31, … Larvae survive best in compost mixtures of decaying vegetables enriched with dung or animal material. the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south. 2000. Biological control. Axtell RC. The mating process is mainly the responsibility of the male. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables and ranches. Photograph by USDA. Insects: Spiders and Other Terrestrial Arthropods. Musca este un gen de muște din familia Muscidae.El include și specia Musca domestica (musca de casă comună).. Specii. (Hafez, 2005; Hewitt, 1914; Kelling, et al., 2002; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Houseflies exhibit a wide range of dispersal, ranging from 20 m to 27 miles. at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/aesa/1973/00000066/00000006/art00015. Figure 4. Males seek to mate with many females. Pen, L. Beukeboom, F. Weissing. Networks. (2002) Geostatistical analysis and the impact of moisture on the spatial and temporal distribution of larval Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). The sex ratio of male to female houseflies is always roughly 1:1. The last 4 segments are normally retracted but they extend to make the ovipositor when the female lays her eggs. at http://www.rug.nl/biologie/onderzoek/onderzoekgroepen/evolutionarygenetics/people/sexhousefly?lang=en. Pest Management Science 56: 1-7. reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body. NYS IPM Pub. Longevity is enhanced by availability of suitable food, especially sugar. Photograph by Matt Aubuchon, University of Florida. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis. They may lay their eggs in human feces, where the maggots can filter feed on nutrient rich waste material. Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity. Houseflies do not bite. referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action. islands that are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass, most typically these are volcanic islands. Seventy-seven individuals from 14 populations of M. domestica spanning 4 continents were sampled and analyzed for the presence of Hermes transposons. (Borror, et al., 1989; Dahlem, 2003; Hewitt, 1914; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Like many flies (Diptera), mouthparts of adults are sponge-like. (Bryant and Hall, 1999; Kozielska, et al., 2006; Kozielska, et al., 2011; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), In warm weather, housefly larvae hatch within 8 to 12 hours. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. In situations where plumbing is lacking, such as open latrines, serious health problems can develop, especially if there are outdoor food markets, hospitals, or slaughter houses nearby. 2011. Houseflies transmitted helminthic eggs, protozoa cysts and trophozoites, bacteria fungi, and virus by mechanical transmission through its vomits or excreta. The House Fly: Musca Domestica, Linnaeus: Its Structure, Habits, Development, Relation to Disease and Control. Traps. Prepupating stage. They may dis­perse as lit­tle as 27 to 1080 m in urban habi­tats to 5 to 7 miles in rural habi­tats. (2003). Indoors, ultraviolet light traps collect the flies inside an inverted cone or kill them with an electrocuting grid. The house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home. Seasonal abundance and parasitism of house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae in enclosed, shallow-pit poultry houses in Indiana. 1991. The female’s main role is to decide whether to accept or decline the male’s mating request by extending her ovipositor to the male or not. (Dahlem, 2003; Lam, et al., 2009; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Several species of beetles and mites feed on houseflies. March 26, 2012 Adult house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. 532-534 in V Resh, R Carde, eds. House flies are monitored with baited traps, sticky ribbons, or spot cards on livestock facilities. makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 124, 2: 199-225. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 151: 651-654. It breeds in excreta, especially human faeces, and is the main insect vector of trachoma, a major cause of blindness In North America and Europe, houseflies are common from July through September. The house fly and how to suppress it. Figure 1. Excessive fly populations are not only an irritant to farm workers but… … (Dahlem, 2003; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972). Spot cards are 3-inch by 5-inch white index cards attached to fly resting surface. Distribution of Hermes in M. domestica. The abdomen is gray or yellowish with dark midline and irregular dark markings on the sides. living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity. 1962. Adult and eggs of the house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. Cambridge: University Press. According to a study conducted in Texas, USA, breeding site suitability (in descending order), was horse manure, human excrement, cow manure, fermenting vegetable matter, and kitchen waste. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy Natural biological suppression of the house fly results primarily from the actions of certain chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), of which many species have been associated with house fly around the world. One strike takes 1 to 9 seconds to occur. 2001. They are believed to have originated in temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. Because larval house flies (Musca domestica L.) have been shown to require the ingestion of live bacteria to undergo development and pupariation (Zurek et al. Environmental Entomology, 17, 2: 320-329. The lower surface of these lobes contains numerous transverse grooves that serve as liquid food channels. The house fly is often confused with the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus), and the false stable fly, Muscina stabulans (Germar). New York, N.Y.: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.. Tobin, E., J. Stoffolano. Musca domestica is a species of worldwide distribution (Smith, 1986; Ferreira and Lacerda, 1993) and of medical and veterinary importance since it is a mechanical vector of several diseases (Harwood and James, 1979; Smith, 1986, Levine and Levine, 1991). Chemical sensations from their olfactory system create an electrophysiological response on the antennae. Warm summer conditions are generally optimum for the development of the house fly, and it can complete its life cycle in as little as seven to ten days. living in the southern part of the New World. Clockwise from left: eggs, larva, pupa, adult. March 26, 2012 Recommended placement areas outdoors include near building entrances, in alleyways, beneath trees, and around animal sleeping areas and manure piles. Other breeding mediums include rotten fruit and vegetables, old broth, boiled eggs, and even rubber. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. at ttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/aesa/1970/00000063/00000003/art00026. March 26, 2012 The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. The sticky card: device for studying the distribution of adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in closed poultry houses.

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