The first was the Spanish Crown, or if you are Brazilian, the Portuguese crown. The term Creole has many meanings in modern-day language, but in this context, it refers to someone of mostly Spanish descent who was born in the New World. By that time, Spain was between a rock and a hard place: The creoles clamored for positions of influence in the colonial bureaucracy and for freer trade. In 1825 President Adams and Secretary of State Clay seized a new opportunity to shape Latin Americain the United States' image by accepting an invitation to the Panama Congress. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. By the late 18th century, Spain was forced to loosen some trade restrictions, but the move was too little, too late, as those who produced these goods now demanded a fair price for them. His remarkable military tactics were instrumental in defeating the Spanish forces. Though they were politically independent from countries such as Spain and Portugal, many countries remained economically dependent on Europe, in particular on the United Kingdom. As late as 1808, Spain's New World Empire stretched from parts of the present-day western U.S. to Tierra del Fuego in South America, from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. influence of the French Revolution on the 19c revolutions in Latin America. By the end of the eighteenth century, the visiting Prussian scientist Alexander Von Humboldt (1769–1859) noted that the locals preferred to be called Americans rather than Spaniards. The colonists, whose ancestry was Spanish, but were born there were known as Creoles. Colonial System in Latin America By the late 1700s, most of Latin America had been colonized especially by Spain, but also Portugal and France. Not only did it provide a massive distraction and tie up Spanish troops and ships, it pushed many undecided Creoles over the edge in favor of independence. This was not the case in Latin America. The result of these revolutions was the formation of independent countries in Latin America. During the nineteenth century, the new Latin American countries faced by many challenges in developing their economies. Although they had Spanish blood and were descendants of Spanish citizens in the true sense, they were not allowed high posts in the Government. From 1807 to 1830, you have a series of revolutions in Latin America, many of which were led by Simon Bolivar, who was a Crejo, or Creole, Venezuelan. The small group of foreign volunteers that the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda brought to his homeland failed to incite the populace to rise against Spanish rule. While Spain was racially "pure" in the sense that the Moors, Jews, gypsies, and other ethnic groups had been kicked out centuries before, the New World populations were a diverse mixture of Europeans, Indigenous people (some of whom were enslaved), and enslaved Black people. After all, these events helped shape the future of more than just one country. In Central America, oligarchic systems of governance prevailed … The occupation of his forces led to the Peninsular War, which gave the Spanish Creole an opportunity to gain independence from their mother country. The Latin American region witnessed various revolutions in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The time when the upheaval began in Latin America, there was a lot of instability in Europe. We will see the causes of the revolution and the events that caused it. The first serious revolt in the war for Latin America independence began in Mexico, by Miguel De Hidalgo, a parish priest, who rallied the peasants, the indigenous people and the metizos (people of mixed European and Native American descent) against Spanish colonial rule on September 16, 1810. Most of the southern colonies, such as Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay fought their wars of independence against the Spanish forces. Political effect of the latin american revolution-Ruled by caudillos,-upper classes supported the dictatorship,-lower classes didn't have any experience with democracy. In 1788, Charles III of Spain, a competent ruler, died, and his son Charles IV took over. Because of this competition, these major players were rivals to each other. When Great Britain attacked Buenos Aires in 1806–1807, Spain could not defend the city and a local militia had to suffice. The highly racist colonial society was extremely sensitive to minute percentages of Black or Indigenous blood. These differences were cultural and often a source of great pride among Creole families and regions. While the Spanish imperial government was no paragon of liberty, prior to the outbreak of the Latin American wars of independence it implemented numerous reforms, better known as the Bourbon Reforms. After Spanish and French naval forces were crushed at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, Spain's ability to control the colonies lessened even more. Strong French monarchs led revolutions in Latin America. Taxation Without Representation. The French Revolution in Europe followed, and collectively these events had profound effects on the British, Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies in the Americas. (A) San Martin (B) L’Ouverture (C) Bolivar (D) Morelos From whom did the Haitian’s seek to gain their independence? Of all of the factors listed above, the most important is probably Napoleon's invasion of Spain. Between 1808 and 1826 all of Latin America except the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico slipped out of the hands of the Iberian powers who had ruled the region since the conquest. In the early 19th century, almost all of South America was under colonial rule. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Although the revolution has left bittersweet memories in the minds of people, the common cause of achieving independence makes it one of the most important events in Latin America. This led the colonists to believe that Spain was not as powerful as believed, and hence they capitalized on the circumstances. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The "dark side" of the revolutions was that they were fought, in part, to maintain a racist status quo in the colonies freed of Spanish liberalism. In the War of Independence, Ecuador and Colombia too gained independence after battling the Spanish armies. The independence of Latin America After three centuries of colonial rule, independence came rather suddenly to most of Spanish and Portuguese America. He was defeated, but this display of rebel put in motion a domino effect which led to the liberation of the whole of South America in just 3 decades. The origins of the Latin American independence movements of the early 1800s might be … The Latin American War of Independence comprised numerous wars and conflicts that took place between the year 1808 and 1829. The war against the Spanish forces saw many regions gain independence. the American and French Revolution. 9th - 10th grade. Latin America's civil wars and revolutions did not begin … the Civil War in Spain. The Latin American Wars of Independence were the various revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a … In 1838 the Central American Federation was formed when the independent states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, … In which John Green talks about the many revolutions of Latin America in the 19th century. In order to sum up a common goal for Latin American nations, a solution was required. showed revolutionaries that it was possible to have a rebellion that eventually lead to success This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Independence movements in the northern regions of Spanish South America had an inauspicious beginning in 1806. The ethnic diversity was much more prevalent in South America than in the North. (Sorry guys, lost my voice. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS: MENU Who led the independence movement in Haiti? Trade Restrictions: The competition between the powerhouses earlier, made the Spanish and the Portuguese put trade restrictions on the colonies. Most of the events that led to the Latin American Revolution were begun because of the Spainish colonization and conquering of the Latin American people. A series of conflicts and battles led to the independence of the Peruvian and Bolivian colonies. War in Europe: As we mentioned, the English Navy was the most powerful at that time. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Latin American Independence was the drive for independence from Spain and France by the Latin American people. Revolutions in both regions were based on the idea of natural rights. The American Revolutionary War … The Spread of Revolution The Latin American Wars of Independence, which took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, were deeply influenced by the American and French Revolutions and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. Adams and Clay hoped to secure multilateral agreements at Panama that would solidify republican government, liberal commerce, and diplomatic isolation throughout the hemisphere. Other revolutions were not as positive. Copyright © Historyplex & Buzzle.com, Inc. Haitian Revolution and Latin American Revolutions Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! Argentina was the first to formally declare independence on July 9, 1816. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The relentless war for freedom of Latin American colonies became vivid in 1809. Spain granted neither, which caused great resentment and helped lead to independence. Many men and women who would have otherwise supported the royalist side now joined the insurgents. Although the representatives of Gran Colombia and the United Provinces Of Central America, along with other representatives from Latin American colonies attended the meeting, differences of opinion, regional interests, and geographical barriers made the formation of the union impossible. In which John Green talks about the many revolutions of Latin America in the 19th century. These revolutions had a great impact and long-lasting implications on the countries in Latin America. This irritated the influential Creoles who correctly felt that they were being ignored. Usually members of the Creoles, American born Spaniards, who owned most of the land. Initial attempts at … Many Latin Americans began selling their goods illegally to the British colonies and, after 1783, U.S. merchants. They only let their pure blood citizens govern the colonies. There were many battles fought and the colonies gained their freedom and became the independent country of the United States. During that time, ten Spaniards and four Creoles from other areas did serve. Causes of the Latin American Independence Movement The American Revolution created a ripple effect in both the Western and Eastern hemispheres. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Venezuela’s Declaration of Independence in 1810, 10 Myths About Spanish and the People Who Speak It, The Second Voyage of Christopher Columbus, Biography of Bartolomé de Las Casas, Spanish Colonist, The 10 Most Important Events in the History of Latin America, What Is Latin America? You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. By 1825, it was all gone, except for a handful of islands in the Caribbean—broken into several independent states. This had a lot of drawbacks, and is one of the main reasons of the Latin revolutions. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Some Spanish officials must have realized this and so the decision was taken to squeeze the utmost out of the colonial system before it collapsed. Spain was able to control such a large area having outposts of colonial authority in major cities such as Mexico City, Lima, and Buenos Aires. answer choices . How could Spain's New World Empire fall apart so quickly and completely? The Haitian Revolution, a bloody but successful uprising of enslaved people against their French colonial enslavers (1791–1804), terrified landowners in the Caribbean and northern South America, and as the situation worsened in Spain, many feared that Spain could not protect them from a similar uprising. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. To further muddle things up, Spanish law allowed wealthy people of mixed heritage to "buy" whiteness and thus rise in a society that did not want to see their status change. Even if Spain had agreed to these changes, they would have created a more powerful, wealthy colonial elite with experience in administering their home regions—a road that also would have led directly to independence. In the audiencia (court) of Caracas, for example, no native Venezuelans were appointed from 1786 to 1810. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. With a weak ruler and the Spanish military tied up, Spain's presence in the New World decreased markedly and the Creoles felt more ignored than ever. The Sugar Act was the first fully enforced tax levied in America … Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the wars for independence in other parts of the globe, Latin American gained momentum to began their own revolution. The native slaves and the African slaves often were laborers on their plantations. In the early 19th century, almost all of South America was under colonial rule. During the revolution, trade between Great Britain and the revolutionary colonies against the Spanish regime expanded steadily as Spain had opposed trade with Spanish colonies in the past. The American Revolution was a time when the British colonists in America rebelled against the rule of Great Britain. At the beginning of the 1800s, Latin America was firmly under the control of Spain and Portugal. In case of Spanish colonies, only a Spanish pure blood could take high positions of the government in the colonies. First proposed by Bolívar, the Panama Congress would bring together all of the independent American governments in the summer of 1826. In short, there was no eradication of the native population by the colonists. He failed and hence turned his attention towards Europe itself. The term American Revolution also includes the American War of Independence, and resulted in the formation of the United States of America. Their methods of governance were very similar though. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Which statement about the French and Latin American revolutions is accurate? The answer is long and complicated, but here are some of the essential causes of the Latin American Revolution. Under the leadership of Simon Bolivar, on June 24 1821, Venezuelan forces defeated the Spanish and gained independence. Causes of the American Revolution The Stamp Act : The Stamp Act, which was passed in 1765, was Parliament’s first serious attempt to assert governmental authority over the thirteen American colonies. By the late eighteenth century, the Spanish colonies had a thriving class of Creoles (Criollo in Spanish), wealthy men and women of European ancestry born in the New World. Meanwhile, Spanish officials and newcomers consistently treated Creoles with disdain, maintaining and further widening the social gap between them. Spain discriminated against the Creoles, appointing mostly new Spanish immigrants to important positions in the colonial administration. America was a mixing of many different races … Activity 4: Latin American Revolutions. Even after colonization, the ethnic population was still thriving. There were many contributing factors that ultimately led to the uprising of Latin American colonies. Napoleon Bonaparte tried to invade North America and take some colonies for France. This caused resentment within the privileged classes. Much of the history of 20th Century in Latin America has been characterized by political instability and turmoil. This meant that they were not allowed to trade with England or France. the Crusades. The loss of life in these wars was unimaginable. The independence of Latin America from Spain was a foregone conclusion as soon as the creoles began thinking of themselves as Americans and the Spaniards as something different from them. In places like Argentina, colonies "sort of" declared independence, claiming they would only rule themselves until such time as Charles IV or his son Ferdinand was put back on the Spanish throne. The American and French Revolutions influenced what area to fight for their own political independence? This half-measure was much more palatable to those who did not want to declare independence outright. During this time, Napoleon marshaled his forces and invaded Europe, including Portugal and Spain in 1808. Tired of the waffling of Charles IV and Spain's inconsistency as an ally, Napoleon invaded in 1808 and quickly conquered not only Spain but Portugal as well. The vast Spanish New World Empire produced many goods, including coffee, cacao, textiles, wine, minerals, and more. This is all I can muster for this one.) Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. He replaced Charles IV with his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte. Right, so before independence, Latin American society was characterized by three institutions that exercised control over the population. If there was some allowance, heavy taxes were levied. Nepotism: It was not nepotism in the pure sense, but seeing how big the colonies were relative to the small countries that had captured them, it did seem like nepotism. A Spain ruled by France was an outrage even for New World loyalists. Spain Portugal The Netherlands France What was the class of most of the revolutionaries in Haiti? the Renaissance. Enlightenment Era concepts, nationalism, and revolutionary ideals sparked decolonization and rebellion.The diversity of colonial populations and tensions among social classes often complicated … Definition and List of Countries. The three major powerhouses, namely the English, the Spanish, the French, and the Portuguese were very expansionist in their mentality. Like the beginning of the American Revolution, the soldiers were untrained and poorly armed. On the other hand, Latin American elites wanted to maintain the colonial status quo. Some were a positive influence: The American Revolution (1765–1783) was seen by many in South America as a good example of elite leaders of colonies throwing off European rule and replacing it with a more fair and democratic society—later, some constitutions of new republics borrowed heavily from the U.S. Constitution. Revolution spread to most of Latin America, and from 1810 to 1825, Mexico, Central America, and South America gained independence from Spain and Portugal. There was a growing sense in the colonies of being separate from Spain. People in both regions were fighting for freedom from England. The American Revolution was the first in the Americas, and the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) was a surprising victory against a great power. The constant conflicts and wars between different colonies to gain independence came at a heavy price. ... Q. Revolutions in Latin America were influenced by. Although Simon Bolivar is credited for being the father of Latin American revolutions, it was a relatively lesser known Venezuelan priest Francesco Miranda who led the first revolt against the Spanish. This resulted in a series of revolutions that took place all over Spanish America. Revolutionaries emerged to oppose Spanish rule in South America, which was skewed to only favor the colonialists by exploiting the natives. Many Creoles said they were loyal to Spain, not Napoleon. International effects of the latin american revolution-The monroe doctrine: america declares no more colonizations in the northern or southern america, But in the end, there was no real going back from such a step. Charles IV was weak and indecisive and mostly occupied himself with hunting, allowing his ministers to run the Empire. The answer is long and complicated, but here are some of the essential causes of the Latin American Revolution. Latin American Independence 649 Words | 3 Pages. American Revolution/Mexican Revolution: North American colonists had already defeated the English, even though the English had a far superior navy. Nonetheless, some political trends may still be recognized. Latin American Revolutions DRAFT. By 1810, Spanish America could look to other nations to see revolutions and their results. Lack of Respect for the Creoles By the late eighteenth century, the Spanish colonies had a thriving class of Creoles (Criollo in Spanish), wealthy men and women of European ancestry born in the New World. The American, French, and Haitian revolutions brought forth new expressions of individual rights and freedom that began to influence similar actions in the colonies of Latin America. A person's status in society could be determined by how many 64ths of Spanish heritage one had. This made them unhappy, although this unrest did not spill over until the moment was right. By the time Spain was beginning to stabilize—Ferdinand reclaimed the throne in 1813—colonies in Mexico, Argentina, and northern South America were in revolt. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Huascar and Atahualpa: an Inca Civil War. We hope you enjoy this website. This made him conquer Spain and the Portuguese. Latin American Revolution 1. Latin American Revolutions The Latin American region witnessed various revolutions in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. These cookies do not store any personal information. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The English had taken North America, eventually losing it to the colonists in the late 18th century. It was a kind of medieval arms race, where the country had more glory if it had the maximum amount of land in the world under its governance. The War of Independence which lasted for over two decades witnessed some of the bloodiest battles in Latin American history. 1750-1914: An Age of Revolutions Latin American Independence Movements 2. Lati… We've created informative articles that you can come back to again and again when you have questions or want to learn more! One of the first persons to propose a Spanish American cooperation which consisted of a common military, common defense pact and parliamentary assembly was Simon Bolivar at the 1826 Congress of Panama. A majority of land was held by the Portuguese followed by the Spanish, and then the French. Fierce d… answer choices . The Best History Museums to Virtually Tour During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Virtual Reality Experiences That Let You See History Up Close, The Most Accurate Movies Based on History Worth Seeing, History of Welding: From Ancient Craft to a Developing Modern Industry, History of Dentistry: From Ancient Necessity to Modern Luxury, A Peoples History: Howard Zinn and the Politics of American History, Present day Venezuela, Columbia, Brazil, Peru, Argentina Ecuador, Uruguay Paraguay, Chile, and Bolivia. The revolutionary hero Simon Bolivar is a good example, as he was born in Caracas to a well-to-do Creole family that had lived in Venezuela for four generations, but as a rule, did not intermarry with the locals. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. This led the South American colonists to believe that even they could thwart the Spanish and Portuguese. But the colonies were only allowed to trade with Spain, and at rates advantageous for Spanish merchants. This video is intended for my 7th Grade social studies class. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. Latin American Summary. The result of these revolutions was the formation of independent countries in Latin America. In the North, the Whites slowly became the dominant population. As an ally of Napoleon's First French Empire, Spain willingly joined with Napoleonic France and began fighting the British. At the beginning of the 1800s, Latin America was firmly under the control of Spain and Portugal. The remarkable leadership of José Gervasio Artigas and Fulgencio Yegros was a huge contributing factor to Uruguay’s and Paraguay’s independence. In these wars, the leadership of José de San Martin, who was known as The Liberator in Argentina, played a crucial role in the independence of these colonies. John Green talks about the many revolutions of Latin America in the 19th century. The chaos in Spain provided a perfect excuse to rebel without committing treason. Those who resisted Napoleon in Spain begged the colonials for help but refused to promise to reduce trade restrictions if they won. The loss of life and destruction caused during these series of wars was beyond belief. Europe's strong hold on the economic and political life of Latin America… The proclamation of independence of Peru was made by José de San Martin on July 28, 1821, and although Bolivia gained independence from Spain in 1809, it was followed by sixteen years of pain and struggle before being established as a republic. Natural World still thriving growing sense in the war of independence, Ecuador Colombia... Right, so before independence, Latin America took over factor to Uruguay ’ s and Paraguay ’ s.... North, the French Revolution on the circumstances it is mandatory to procure user consent prior to these. By 1810, Spanish officials and newcomers consistently treated Creoles with disdain, maintaining further. Tried to invade North America, which was skewed to only favor the colonialists by exploiting natives. To trade with Spain, not Napoleon invade North America and take some for... Revolution was a huge contributing factor to Uruguay ’ s independence country the! 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