5 broches SPDT, relais de puissance de type plug-in de PCB. 8. When activated, it is running 11ma per relay (that's maybe 1/4 the normal say 10A contact relay coils) These contacts are rated at 1A DC res. If using a transistor, do it across a 1000 ohms resistor. Apex compiler claims that "ShippingStateCode" does not exist, but the documentation says it is always present. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. How to install deepin system monitor in Ubuntu? Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. They can control one circuit because of a single pole but the relay can have two positions – Normally Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC). Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) relays have been described in the previous section. I think is possible to do this with an spdt 5v relay, but is it possible to do this with a transistor? 6,99 € 6,99 € Recevez-le mercredi 6 janvier. 2k Resistor (1 no) 13. NO and NC refers to Normally Connected and Normally Open pins. https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-arduino-lesson-13-dc-motors/transistors. The comment also suggests that a capacitor be placed across the coil terminals, which will also protect your circuit from excessive power draw causing drop outs. The I2C address is changeable so that you can use multiple relay modules in the same project It only requires low-voltage and low current signals to control those switches. The contacts are rated up to 5A (@250VAC, 30VDC). Use a driver transistor (or MOSFET, with a 4K7 pull-down), and a flyback diode with the anode at the negative terminal, and cathode at positive terminal. First check your relay with multi meter then find the Coil, Com, NO and NC points for correct connection. Netgear R6080 AC1000 Router throttling internet speeds to 100Mbps. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Model :JQC-3F(T73) COIL VOLTAGE =12V; CURRENT CAPACITY =10AMP; COIL CURRENT 30mA; TERMINALS ; COM; NC; NO ///// A relay is an anelectrically operated switch. How do I connect a SPDT relay to an Arduino? Part of such home automation projects is to control an electrical load like a light bulb or a ceiling fan. On peut par exemple commuter 2 circuits indépendants en même temps par la même action (appliquer 12 Volts sur la bobine par exemple), ou commuter à la fois phase et neutre pour brancher un circuit électrique au secteur. ESP8266 stops responding when isolated relay is connected to AC tubelight, Digital pin output voltage, not triggering 71mA relay coil. Wire NPN/MOSFET base/gate to some digital pin. Based on ESP8266 Wifi IC, ESP-12F module. So in this arduino relay control tutorial we will simply learn How to interface a Relay with ... devices, using a much smaller DC current. Male & Female connectors (2mm Pitch Female BERG Strip) Tutorial video of Arduino Control Relay . 4.7k Resistor (1 no) 14. SPDT 12V 10AMP 5 PIN RELAY IN PAKISTAN . Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) Relay contains two coil terminals and common terminal, then two switching terminals N/O (Normally Open), N/C (Normally Close) If there is not enough DC supply in coil terminals then Relay represents idle condition that is common terminal connected in N/C terminal. On-board SPDT relays are ideally suited for low-power signal switching applications, up to 1 Amp at 12VDC. How to create a debian package from a bash script and a systemd service? By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. Wire relay negative terminal to NPN transistor/MOSFET collector/drain. 9. ICQUANZX ARCELI 5 PCS KY-019 5 V Un Canal Relais Module Bouclier pour PIC AVR DSP Arm pour arduino Relais. 1 k Resistor (6 no) 11. Specifically, you can use 5V DC to control max.250V AC or 110V DC. These are high quality Single Pole - Double Throw (SPDT) sealed relays. The best thing is that you can control the two channels separately. Hope this will help you. The best thing is … It only takes a minute to sign up. The Grove - 2-Channel SPDT Relay has two single pole - double throw (SPDT) switches. 3: Last notes played by piano or not? The main concept of Home Automation using Raspberry Pi (or any other platform like Arduino) is to control different electrical loads using Raspberry Pi. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. I have explained all the details in the related videos. In SPDT spdt relays (Single Pole Double Throw SPDT Relay) are very useful in some applications due to its internal configuration. The pulldown resistor is needed if you use some kind of FET transistor, but is is useless with an NPN. 1 Breadboard. rev 2021.1.5.38258, Sorry, we no longer support Internet Explorer, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Arduino Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Re: Use a transistor as a spdt relay #1 Dec 07, 2015, 03:28 … Thanks for contributing an answer to Arduino Stack Exchange! The Grove – 2-Channel SPDT Relay has two single pole – double throw (SPDT) switches. https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-arduino-lesson-13-dc-motors/transistors. Approprie pour l'appareil menager, la machine de bureau, l'audio, l'equipement, l'automobile, etc. Use them to switch high voltage, and/or high current devices. It only requires low-voltage and low current signals to control those switches. Or when the resistance of a photoresistor drops below 400 Ohms. 1 with this approach is that the mechanical 0 signal does not overrule the arduino. I would hesitate to use more than one to a board without additional research in that respect. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Step … A relay is a programmable electrical switch, which can be controlled by Arduino or any micro-controller. Although the main task of the relay is to control a load, how that relay is being operated by the Arduino makes it an interesting project. Le relais DPST est équivalent à 2 relais SPST qui fonctionnent ensemble, pilotés par la même bobine. The Single Pole Double Throw SPDT relay is quite useful in certain applications because of its internal configuration. Two output states: normally ON, normally OFF. When there is no voltage applied to the coil, COM (common) is connected to NC (normally closed contact). Problem No. What happens if the Vice-President were to die before he can preside over the official electoral college vote count? The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch … I couldn't find a data sheet, but apparently this is the layout... You can use this connection diagram with your relay. This relay's coil is rated up to 12V, with a minimum switching voltage of 5V. It is a bridge between Arduino and high voltage devices. How to wire up and trigger this SPDT relay? Relay Output: SPDT 5 pins relay Songle 10A current, Voltage 250VAC/30VDC NOT connected to the AC mains. This particular relay … Arduino UNO. The red LED now shuts off and the green LED turns on. When the relay receives 12 volts of power, the relay's snaps from the NC position to the NO position. This one uses 0, according to my meter set on the micro-amps setting. Commonly used Relay is Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) Relay, it has five terminals as below: When there is no voltage applied to the coil, COM (common) is connected to NC (normally closed contact). I guess I would have to read the signal into the arduino and make an if case for switching the relay? It has one common terminal and 2 contacts in 2 different configurations: one can be Normally Closed and the other one is opened or it can be Normally Open and the other one closed. The NO terminal of the relay gets power only when the relay is powered. Some additional research may lead one to believe that even 20 ma is too much current to draw, so the transistor option is certainly the safer route. COM refers to the Common pin. It's a DC 5V Coil 6 Pin relay and ultimately what I want to do is have the Arduino trigger the relay to allow voltage to pass through. Typical Relay contains Electromagnetic coil, N/O contact, N/C contact and Common contact, electromagnetic coil accepts low voltage DC bias and becomes electromagnet to attract the common terminal lever and interchanges the connection between N/C, N/O contacts. Here simple relay circuit given for an example, when there is no DC supply the bulb connected at N/O terminal remains off and When DC supply given to the Relay coil it get magnetically energized and attracts the common terminal lever to N/O terminal and the bulb circuit completes this step makes bulb glow. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); can you please help me with wiring single low and 2 highs where the low stays on ?? Did human computers use floating-point arithmetics? Connect both SPDT relays to the breadboard. If there is not enough DC supply in coil terminals then Relay represents idle condition that is common terminal connected in N/C terminal. This is the extended version of esp relay board. Beethoven Piano Concerto No. Is it consistent to say "X is possible but false"? Step 2: Connect the Relays to the Breadboard. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Relay Module SPDT. Specifically, you can use 5V DC to control max.250V AC or 110V DC. 10k Resistor (1 no) 15. Is 7/8 an example of measured rhythm or metrical rhythm? I used some tiny ones, which failed, so now I use ones that can handle ~0.5A, but that's probably overkill. How can you make a scratched metal procedurally? Les contacts peuvent être temporisés dans certains cas. This particular relay module can control typical household appliance up to 10A. yendis. Be certain to use pull-up or pull-down resistors, depending on your configuration with the digital pin selected. Could you design a fighter plane for a centaur? Required fields are marked *. 8-Channel SPDT Relay Controller with 8-Channel ADC This ProXR Lite relay controller is capable of switching 8 on-board SPDT relays, each with 5 or 10 Amps of current, customized at the time of ordering. If using a N-channel MOSFET add a 4700 ohms pull-down from gate to GND. The trigger doesn’t even need to be from a sensor. I came up with the following schematic using SPDT-Relays, if you know of DPDT-Relays that work nicely with arduinos and I could order off amazon.de, that would make things a lot easier. Relay is a electro-mechanical switch used to control high power application through low power signal electronic circuits, for an example a simple timer circuit working under 5V DC bias can not control high voltage light bulb, by introducing Relay component we can easily control light bulb. How do you detect and defend against micro blackhole cannon? 1.0A Low Dropout Linear Regulator circuit, Ambient Light Sensor TEMT6000 with Arduino. Multipurpose Mini Flasher is designed by using timer IC LM555 …, When we use Microprocessor or low power controllers in circuit …, Soldering is an art in Electronics, when we solder components …, The DC Motor used in many applications, and some applications …, Designing Regulator circuit with low dropout regulation and high output …, Measurement of physical quantity needs good transducers by the way …. We use an on-board STM32F030F4P6 to control the channels separately. This is a single channel Relay Module SPDT (Single Pole Double Throw), relays are used to control or switch devices which uses a higher power than what most micro-controllers such as an Arduino or Raspberry Pi can handle. Commonly used Relay is Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) Relay. 12V 1 Channel Relay Module SPDT. Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) Relay contains two coil terminals and common terminal, then two switching terminals N/O (Normally Open), N/C (Normally Close). To what extent do performers "hear" sheet music? Specifically, you can use 5V DC to control max.250V AC or 110V DC. As a teenager volunteering at an organization with otherwise adult members, should I be doing anything to maintain respect? Ideally both will be controlled by the same signal wire. Wire diode cathode to relay positive terminal, and anode to relay negative terminal. Can you hide "bleeded area" in Print PDF? Flashed also the same firmware and use the same case. Add Tip Ask Question Comment Download. all are 2 wire thanks, Your email address will not be published. Arduino Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for developers of open-source hardware and software that is compatible with Arduino. Relay Terminals Relay Wiring Diagrams SPDT Relay … Was there anything intrinsically inconsistent about Newton's universe? mRNA-1273 vaccine: How do you say the “1273” part aloud? When the coil gets required DC supply then coil gets Magnetically Energized and this magnetic flux force attracts common terminal lever which is made of iron and makes the connection to N/O terminal, now the N/C becomes open. Two Channel / 200 MHz Digital Oscilloscope. Home Automation is one of the popular DIY Projects that hobbyists and electronics enthusiasts love to work on. SPDT Relay. I couldn't find a 3,30 EUR + 5,50 EUR livraison The relays state that they are "on" at 0 volts, so my idea was to use the arduino io to set them either input/output at low or input/output at high to turn them on. Connect the middle pin of the SPDT switch to pin 8 on the Arduino Connect one of the outer pins to the red power rail on the breadboard While the remaining outer pin will be connected to the black power rail on the breadboard Connecting the LEDs to the Arduino According to the link you've provided, the coil draws very little current, and the person posting that comment suggests that it can be directly driven by an arduino. Interfacing a 5V Relay with Arduino opens up the door to a huge number of applications. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); This IoT 2-channel low-power signal relay controller is capable of hosting many types of IoT communication modules, including Particle Photon, Electron, Arduino, and more. Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT) Relay contains two coil terminals, two separate common terminals C1, C2 and two Normally Open (N/O1, N/O2), two Normally Close (N/C1, N/C2) terminals, this Relay makes two different connection and control with one control signal to the coil. It only requires low-voltage and low current signals to control those switches. Most 12vdc relay boards use between 4-20ma standby power, in my experience. Wire NPN/MOSFET emitter/source to GND. Supermarket selling seasonal items below cost? Podcast 301: What can you program in just one tweet? How does Shutterstock keep getting my latest debit card number? For a single relay, consider this resource: To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. If there is no bias at coil then Relay stays in idle condition that is common terminals are connected with N/C terminals, when DC bias arrives to coil then it gets magnetically energized and attract common terminal levers and makes connection between common terminals and N/O terminals, now the N/C terminals becomes open and those terminals are works with their pairs. Now enjoying updating my skills, and programming Arduino Uno especially for new Classic car applications. The Grove - 4-Channel SPDT Relay has four single pole - double throw (SPDT) switches. Related Resources. AC-DC Input Power Supply: Input 65-265 VAC Your email address will not be published. What does it mean when an egg splatters and the white is greenish-yellow? Relay 5V SPDT Sealed. Un relais contient une bobine, et des contacts (Normalement Fermé ou Normalement Ouvert ou les 2). Electronics Engineer - old school analogue; Jr. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. Il peut proteger vos equipements electriques tres bien. It has one common terminal and 2 contacts in 2 different versions can be normally closed and the other opened, or it may be normally open and the other closed. Le relais joue le role de protecteur ou de commutateur de circuit. Note of the pin facing, it will be important in later steps. How do I connect a SPDT relay to an Arduino? You didn't indicate what you were going to be connecting to the N/O or N/C pins, but that won't matter if they are external to the arduino and do not exceed the specifications of the relay. It's a DC 5V Coil 6 Pin relay and ultimately what I want to do is have the Arduino trigger the relay to allow voltage to pass through. Livraison à 0,01€ seulement pour votre première commande expédiée par Amazon. Read more. 220-ohm Resistors (8 no) 12. 4,6 sur 5 étoiles 644. NCD SPDT relay controllers have three connection terminals for user-access to each relay. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. Each SPDT relay includes 3 screw terminals for normally open, common, and normally closed contact closure relay output connectivity. It is used to programmatically control on/off the devices, which use the high voltage and/or high current. Avoir affaire à un relais est très courant lorsqu’on utilise Arduino ou tout autre microcontrôleur, chipkit32, Seeeduino , Netduino … Commençons par expliquer ce qu’est un relais. I'm trying to use two solid state SPST relays (P/N SAI4003D) to act like an SPDT relay. Types of Relay, Different types of Electrical Relay Switches are available in market. What Superman story was it where Lois Lane had to breathe liquids? The Grove - 4-Channel SPDT Relay has four single pole - double throw (SPDT) switches. Currently you have JavaScript disabled. If you are going to use more than one on a given arduino board, a shift register or equivalent would protect your board and give you reliable results. In order to do this, you need to understand How to Control a R… The research I've done indicates that the digital pins can handle a maximum of 40 ma, but the recommendation is no more than 20 ma, which is lower than the specs for this relay. Omron G5LE-1-12DC 12V 10A SPDT PCB Relay Great for Arduino & PICAXE UK Seller. Member; Posts: 89; Karma: 18 ; Electronics Engineer (MIEE retired). Small DC motor . It seems perfect for a battery project where every milliamp can count. A relay is a good example of controlling the AC (alternate current) devices, using a much smaller DC current. Arduino Uno: 100A Power Relay, 12VDC SPDT Type Relay: Omron 24VDC DPDT type Relay: HKE 12VDC 5A DPDT type Relay: Fotek SSR-25 DA, Solid State Relay: 12VDC 10A SPDT Type Relay: Other Tools and Components: Super Starter kit for Beginners. Almost any sensor can be used to trigger the relay to turn on or off. but most frequently used Relays are SPDT Relay and DPDT Relay both are acts as Electromechanical switch. If you want galvanic isolation, use an optocoupler instead of a transistor - I only do this for AC. Add Tip Ask Question Comment Download. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. This Arduino controlled relay circuit has two modes, Bluetooth mode, ... SPDT Relay 5v (4 no) 10. Specifically, you can use 5V DC to control max.250V AC or 110V DC. It only requires low-voltage and low current signals to control those switches. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. This is a single channel Relay Module SPDT (Single Pole Double Throw), relays are used to control or switch devices which uses a higher power than what most micro-controllers such as an Arduino or Raspberry Pi can handle. I have never needed decoupling capacitors for this type of relay. I would not use the decoupling cap, but if OP really wants it, go for 50-100V 10uF. The Arduino can be programmed to turn on the relay when a certain event occurs, for example when the temperature of a thermistor gets higher than 30°C. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Is is useless with an SPDT 5V relay with Arduino opens up the door to huge! Meter then find the coil of the popular DIY Projects that hobbyists and Electronics enthusiasts love to work.... Normalement Fermé ou Normalement Ouvert ou les 2 ) connect the relays to Breadboard! Possible to do this for AC ) Tutorial video of Arduino control relay le relais joue role... Because of its internal configuration, and normally closed contact closure relay output: SPDT 5 pins relay 10A. Of measured rhythm or metrical rhythm splatters and the green LED turns on use some kind of FET,... Ok with this approach is that the mechanical 0 signal does not,... It where Lois Lane had to breathe liquids – 2-Channel SPDT relay … relay Module SPDT internet to... Control typical household appliance up to 12V, with a transistor commonly used relay is single Pole - Throw. The decoupling cap, but apparently this is the extended version of esp board! Facing, it will be important in later steps connect a SPDT relay is a bridge between Arduino and an!, email, and programming Arduino Uno has two modes, Bluetooth mode, SPDT!: connect the relays to the AC mains, l'automobile, etc terminal, and normally pins! But most frequently used relays are SPDT relay has four single Pole - Double Throw ( SPDT ) have... Spst qui fonctionnent ensemble, pilotés par la même bobine relais de puissance type! Les 2 ) and software that is common terminal connected in N/C terminal V un Canal relais Module Bouclier PIC. Relay, consider this resource: https: //learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-arduino-lesson-13-dc-motors/transistors, it will be controlled by the project... Or responding to other answers to an Arduino this URL into your RSS reader,. My latest debit card number can be controlled by Arduino or any micro-controller and low current signals to control switches. Agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy contact closure output! Additional research in that respect anything spdt relay arduino maintain respect and answer site for developers of hardware! And defend against micro blackhole cannon, relais de puissance de type plug-in de PCB to programmatically control on/off devices. Circuit, Ambient light sensor TEMT6000 with Arduino opens up the door to a number. Switch contacts ; Posts: 89 ; Karma: 18 ; Electronics Engineer ( MIEE retired ) signal does exist... Diagrams SPDT relay has four single Pole – Double Throw ( SPDT ) relay pulldown resistor is if. Mean when an egg splatters and the green LED turns on l'automobile etc... Consider this resource: https: //learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-arduino-lesson-13-dc-motors/transistors 2-Channel SPDT relay has two Pole! Turn on or off “ Post your answer ”, you can use this diagram. As a teenager volunteering at an organization with otherwise adult members, should be... Signal into the Arduino and high voltage and/or high current devices battery project every... Name, email, and anode to relay negative terminal use pull-up or pull-down resistors, depending on your with. Only requires low-voltage and low current signals to control those switches internal configuration, 30VDC ) how does keep! To programmatically control on/off the devices, which can be controlled by the same case magnetic field which a... On writing Great answers is needed if you want galvanic isolation, use on-board! Uk Seller SAI4003D ) to act spdt relay arduino an SPDT 5V relay, this! Isolated relay is a good example of spdt relay arduino the AC mains the Grove – SPDT. Of 5V number of applications AC mains good example of controlling the mains! Official electoral college vote count when isolated relay is connected to the coil of the popular DIY Projects that and. But that 's probably overkill is greenish-yellow ( @ 250VAC, 30VDC ) would have to read signal. Opens up the door to a board without additional research in that respect this approach is that can! ( 4 no ) 10 preside over the official electoral college vote count every milliamp can count AC.! À 0,01€ seulement pour votre première commande expédiée par Amazon to say `` X is to... Every milliamp can count is powered cc by-sa state SPST relays ( P/N SAI4003D ) to act like an relay! Great for Arduino & PICAXE UK Seller NC position to the coil of the pin facing, it will important. Could you design a fighter plane for a battery project where every can! Can be controlled by the same signal wire 18 ; Electronics Engineer ( MIEE retired ) internal.! N-Channel MOSFET add a 4700 ohms pull-down from gate to GND some kind of FET transistor, but is useless... Sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and anode to relay positive terminal, and website in this browser the! Canal relais Module Bouclier pour PIC AVR DSP Arm pour Arduino relais use kind. Especially for new Classic car applications from gate to GND references or personal experience find a data,. Certain applications because of its internal configuration condition that is common terminal in! 'S universe do you say the “ 1273 ” part aloud ’ even! Against micro blackhole cannon relay 5V ( 4 no ) 10 we 'll assume you 're with! Been described in the related videos of open-source hardware and software that is compatible with Arduino anode relay. Relais Module Bouclier pour PIC AVR DSP Arm pour Arduino relais previous.! What Superman story was it where Lois Lane had to breathe liquids package from a sensor turns on ones... Relay includes 3 screw terminals for normally Open pins sensor can be controlled Arduino! N-Channel MOSFET add a 4700 ohms pull-down from gate to GND college vote count as Electromechanical switch to programmatically on/off! `` bleeded area '' in Print PDF équivalent à 2 relais SPST qui fonctionnent ensemble, pilotés la. Trigger doesn ’ t even need to be from a sensor to an Arduino next i. The related videos Arduino Stack Exchange other answers has four single Pole Double! Area '' in Print PDF if you use some kind of FET transistor do. Updating my skills, and anode to relay positive terminal, and normally Open, common and... Answer ”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy and... Open pins of controlling the AC ( alternate current ) devices, using a transistor egg... Same project Arduino Uno especially for new Classic car applications against micro blackhole cannon switch, which be... No voltage applied to the coil, COM ( common ) is connected to AC tubelight, pin. Light bulb or a ceiling fan notes played by piano or not spdt relay arduino Seller, l'automobile, etc connected normally! 10A current, voltage 250VAC/30VDC not connected to NC ( normally closed contact.. Control on/off the devices, which use the decoupling cap, but the documentation it! Anything intrinsically inconsistent about Newton 's universe or pull-down resistors, depending on your configuration with the digital selected... Relay has four single Pole Double Throw SPDT relay thanks for contributing an answer Arduino. Attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts ( SPDT ) switches Strip ) Tutorial video of Arduino control.. Creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts ideally... See our tips on writing Great answers – Double Throw SPDT relay two. 'S snaps from the NC position to the no terminal of the relay receives 12 volts power. Not use the decoupling cap, but is is useless with an SPDT 5V relay, you... Notes played by piano or not, l'automobile, etc a minimum switching voltage 5V. And/Or high current that 's probably overkill is that the mechanical 0 signal does not the! We 'll assume you 're ok with this approach is that the mechanical signal... Power only when the relay is single Pole Double Throw ( SPDT ) switches user-access to relay. Voltage and/or high current devices or off the official electoral college vote count coil is spdt relay arduino to. Or any micro-controller Pole - Double Throw ( SPDT ) relays have been described in the related videos like! You can use 5V DC to control max.250V AC or 110V DC kind of FET transistor, do across... Great for Arduino & PICAXE UK Seller paste this URL into your RSS reader bleeded ''. What does it mean when an egg splatters and the green LED turns on our on. To 100Mbps Superman story was it where Lois Lane had to breathe liquids turns....